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coordination number of osmium

All Publications/Website. This produces the volatile substances osmium tetroxide and ruthenium tetroxide. In addition, there exist 27 short-lived isotopes, of which Osmium-194 has the longest half-life (six years). They have also been evaluated as substitutes for OsO 4 in postfixation of biological specimens and in light and electron microscopic cytochemical methods resulting in osmium … Melting point of Osmium is 3045 °C and its the boiling point is 5027 °C. ; et al. Ruthenium and osmium are grouped together because their pre… ; Moran, G.; Krausz, E. Magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy of the hexacyano complexes of Ru(III) and Os(III). Osmium has the atomic number 76 and an atomic mass of 190.23 u. 08-03-00459-a). J. Our rhenium page has over 200 facts that span 79 different quantities. Osmium-mediated cis-dihydroxylation of an alkene at positions 2 and 3 of a dihydrofuran has been exploited as a route to galacto-, altro-, and allo-C-furanosides, according the general Fig. Srivastava, A.K. Among these, Cu + more commonly gives tetrahedral complexes but can be coaxed to give linear ones. "Abundances of the Elements: Meteoritic and Solar." We use cookies on our website to ensure you get the best experience. ; Guedes da Silva, M.F.C. Zhang, W.-X. Osmium chemistry is a very small area of specialisation. If osmium is compact, it is resistant against non-oxidising acids in water and air. Entley, W.R.; Girolami, G.S. Each entry has a full citation identifying its source. Magnetic Relaxation of 1D Coordination Polymers (X). Kang, H.W. The coordination number of seven and more is known for the Os central atom only in carbonyl-containing clusters as well as heteroleptic mononuclear hydrides of the metal [, We are working now on the development of an improved synthetic protocol in order to obtain. Shorafa, H.; Seppelt, K. Osmium(VII) Fluorine Compounds. Our website uses cookies. Rhodium is dissolved and removed as rhodium sulphate. Abstract. The element osmium is detected via its compound osmium tetroxide. Facile Preparation of Paramagnetic Ru, Pombeiro, J.L. Conceptually, the oxidation state, which may be positive, negative or zero, is the hypothetical charge that an atom would have if all bonds to atoms of different elements were 100% ionic, with no covalent component. Dunbar, K.R. After the addition of alcoholic caustic soda lye, only osmium tetroxide is dissolved and can therefore be separated from ruthenium tetroxide. In. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. ; Breedlove, B.; Ishikawa, R.; Yamashita, M. Single-chain magnets: Beyond the Glauber model. It is formed by the reaction of oxidants such as nitric acid with elemental osmium. Name: Osmium Symbol: Os Atomic Number: 76 Atomic Mass: 190.23 amu Melting Point: 3045.0 °C (3318.15 K, 5513.0 °F) Boiling Point: 5027.0 °C (5300.15 K, 9080.6 °F) Number of Protons/Electrons: 76 Number of Neutrons: 114 Classification: Transition Metal Crystal Structure: Hexagonal Density @ 293 K: 22.4 g/cm 3 Color: silvery Atomic Structure Osmium (from Greek ὀσμή osme, "smell") is a chemical element with the symbol Os and atomic number 76. Iridium remains in the insoluble residue. MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Osmium exhibits oxidation states from 0 to +8 in its compounds, with the exception of +1; well … Babel, D. Magnetism and Structure: Model Studies on Transition Metal Fluorides and Cyanides. This coordination number is rare outside of d 10 complexes of the group 11 metals and mercury, specifically, Cu +, Ag +, Au +, and Hg 2 +. References (Click the next to a value above to see complete citation information for that entry). Ruthenium (Ru) and Osmium (Os) are the first of the platinum group metals (PGMs –Ru, Os, Rh, Ir, Pd and Pt) to be addressed in this series. Colton, R.; Peacock, R.D. In the periodic table, osmium is located in the sixth group of the transition elements. Osmium and iridium were identified in the black residue remaining after dissolving platinum ore with aqua regia, a mixture of 25% nitric acid (HNO 3) and 75% hydrochloric acid (HCl).Today, osmium is primarily recovered during the processing of platinum and nickel ores. You seem to have javascript disabled. In case of the benzidine solution, the filter paper turns purple. ; Guilera, G. The Multifarious World of Transition Metal Hydrides. Bain, G.A. Examples include atomic spectrometry, neutron activation analysis and voltammetry. The detection reaction is specific, however, it is not recommended due to its toxicity. ; Peresypkina, E.V. III. Image showing periodicity of valence s-orbital radius for the chemical elements as size-coded balls on a periodic table grid. ; Heintz, R.A. Chemistry of Transition Metal Cyanide Compounds: Modern Perspectives. At low temperatures, osmium is a superconductor. Our dedicated information section provides allows you to learn more about MDPI. Werner, A. Beitrag zur Konstitution anorganischer Verbindungen. Über die Cyanverbindungen des Osmiums. Comprehensive information for the element Osmium - Os is provided by this page including scores of properties, element names in many languages, most known nuclides and technical terms are linked to their definitions. Gentil, L.A.; Navaza, A.; Olabe, J.A. Wang, X.-Y. Clark, R.C. ; Girolami, G.S. Osmium is, with ruthenium, the most noble of the platinum metals, and cold and hot acids are without effect on them. Osmium tetroxide is a volatile solid with a strong oxidising effect. Rams, M.; Peresypkina, E.V. It is a hard, brittle, bluish-white transition metal in the platinum group that is found as a trace element in alloys, mostly in platinum ores. ; Reid, J.S. There are two most common alloys of osmium, iridosmium and osmiridium. ; Ceulemans, A.A. CASPT2 Study of the Electronic Spectrum of Hexacyanoosmate(III). Bleuzen, A.; Marvaud, V.; Mathoniere, C.; Sieklucka, B.; Verdaguer, M. Photomagnetism in Clusters and Extended Molecule-Based Magnets. Osmium tetroxide is a well-known osmium compound. Platinum Metals Review, volume 39, number 4, 1995, p. 164. Anders, Edward, and Nicolas Grevesse. Oxidation number are t… Albores, P.; Slep, L.D. Bennett, M.V. Volumes 6 and 9 in this 10 book set, Diamagnetic Corrections and Pascal’s Constants. ; Wilkinson, G. 275. In, Shatruk, M.; Avendaňo, C.; Dunbar, K.R. Chapman, K.W. Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. Subsequently, sodium hydrogen carbonate is melted and leached out. Atomic Number of Osmium Osmium is a chemical element with atomic number 76 which means there are 76 protons and 76 electrons in the atomic structure. Growth of osmium thin films and nanoparticles by atomic layer deposition is described. The starting material for osmium production is usually anode sludge from gold or nickel production. Osmium has a bluish-silvery lustre. When exposed to chlorine, this salt gives OsO 4. ; Baraldo, L.M. ; Majcher, A.; Rams, M.; Vostrikova, K.E. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first structurally characterized heptacoordinated osmium complex involving seven equivalent ligands. I.r. Osmium ore refining. Three-axis anisotropic exchange coupling in the single-molecule magnets NEt, Vostrikova, K.; Homoleptic, E. Osmium Cyanide Complexes: Synthesis and Perspective Application in Molecular Magnetism. ; Weeks, C.L. For example, osmium tetroxide is used in fingerprint forensics. Osmium and iridium were discovered at the same time by the British chemist Smithson Tennant in 1803. Sheldrick, G.M. A short history of SHELX. » Boiling Point » Melting Point » Abundant » State at STP » Discovery Year About Osmium. Its electron configuration is [Xe] 4f14 5d6 6s2. Woodward, J. Praeparatio Caerulei Prussiaci. After rhenium and tungsten, osmium, at 3033 °C, has the highest melting point of all metals. 197–214. The analytical calculation of absorption in multifaceted crystals. Lejeune, J.; Cafun, J.-D.; Fornasieri, G.; Brubach, J.-B. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. from Monoligand Complexes to Double-Stranded Helicates and Metallomacrocycles, Metal(II) Complexes of Compartmental Polynuclear Schiff Bases Containing Phenolate and Alkoxy Groups, https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4352/6/9/102/s1, http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/EmergencyPreparedness/BioterrorismandDrugPreparedness/ucm130334.htm, Super Nova diffractometer (Atlas), Single source at offset, Number of measured, independent and observed. ; Rigotti, G.E. Kaye, S.S.; Long, J.R. Hydrogen Storage in the Dehydrated Prussian Blue Analogues M. Ferlay, S.; Mallah, T.; Ouahes, R.; Veillet, P.; Verdaguer, M. A room-temperature organometallic magnet based on Prussian blue. Osmium has a hexagonal close packed crystal structure. Element Osmium (Os), Group 8, Atomic Number 76, d-block, Mass 190.23. Soc. The total number of points of attachment to the central element is termed the coordination number and this can vary from 2 to as many as 16, but is usually 6. A linear single-molecule magnet based on [Ru, Dreiser, J.; Pedersen, K.S. OsO 4 is an intermediate in the extraction of osmium from its ores. ; Wernsdorfer, W.; Vostrikova, K.E. Manoli, J.-M.; Potvin, C.; Brégeault, J.-M.; Griffith, W.P. Unlike most oxidants, oxidation with osmium tetroxide can occur under stereochemical control. The exclusive nature of CN, The research in the area of cyanides has been the subject of several reviews over the years [, Dry, stored over molecular sieves solvents, OsO, The number of osmium homoleptic complex cyanides is limited to the hexacoordinated coordination compounds of two metal oxidation states—two and three. Teller, R.G. In simple terms, the coordination number of a complex is influenced by the relative sizes of the metal ion and the ligands and by electronic factors, such as charge which is dependent on the electronic … The other platinum metals and silver remain. The solution containing the osmium is dropped on a filter paper which has been previously moistened with a benzidine or potassium hexacyanoferrate solution. Finely dispersed osmium slowly oxidises to osmium VIII oxide:Os + 2O2 → OsO4. Eugenia V. Peresypkina thanks Michael Bodensteiner for access to the SuperNova diffractometer. The so-called osmates, anionic oxygen coordination complexes, derive from osmium tetroxide. The coordination number of seven and more is known for the Os central atom only in carbonyl-containing clusters as well as heteroleptic mononuclear hydrides of the metal [45,46,47]. Osmium is the densest naturally occurring element, with an experimentally measured (using x-ray crystallography) density of 22.59 g/cm 3. The following five rules are used for naming complexes: When the complex is either a cation or a neutral molecule, the name of the central metal atom is spelled exactly like the name of the element and is followed by a Roman num… Kira E. Vostrikova conceived, designed and performed the experiment, as well as wrote the paper; Anatolie Gavriluta reproduced some experiments and grew the single crystals; Eugenia V. Peresypkina performed the crystallographic studies and participated in the article redaction. However, more and more instrumental techniques are being used today to detect osmium. Chemical symbol for Osmium is Os. Trinuclear clusters M3(CO)12(M=Ru and Os) react with 2,3-dihydroxyquinoxaline (DQ) to give M(CO)2 (DQ) (DMSO) products. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). ; Southon, P.D. Osmium reacts directly only with chlorine, fluorine and oxygen. In the lithosphere, the estimated concentration of platinum group metals range from 0.05 to 0.5 ppm(2). Coordination numbers are normally between two and nine. The residue is melted down together with sodium peroxide, causing ruthenium and osmium to dissolve. Pedersen, K.S. ; Misra, N. Theoretical investigation on the structure, stability and superhalogen properties of OsFn (n = 1–7) species. Although it is an expensive and toxic compound, osmium tetroxide has some applications. Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia, Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia, Laboratoire des Multimatériaux et Interfaces (UMR 5615), Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex, France. Osmium consists of a mixture of seven stable isotopes: Osmium-192 (41 percent), Osmium-190 (26.4 percent), Osmium-189 (16.1 percent), Osmium-188 (13.3 percent), Osmium-187 (1.6 percent), Osmium-186 (1.58 percent) and Osmium-184 (0.02 percent). The statements, opinions and data contained in the journal, © 1996-2020 MDPI (Basel, Switzerland) unless otherwise stated. This oxidation number is an indicator of the degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound. ; Sigrist, M.; Weihe, H.; Tregenna-Piggott, P.L.W. The only natural radioactive isotope is Osmium-186 with a half-life of about two quadrillion years. Complex cyanides of rhenium. OR SEARCH CITATIONS Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, volume 53, number 1, 1989, pp. Chem. Osmium's elemental abundance is 0.001 ppm(1). In. Osmium is non-toxic in its crystalline form as long as a temperature of 400 °C is not exceeded. [, Osmium-Institut zur Inverkehrbringung und Zertifizierung von Osmium GmbH. In. osmium; heptacyanoosmate(IV); pentagonal bipyramid polyhedron, The Chemistry of Cyano Complexes of the Transition Metals, Encyclopedia of Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry, Synthesis of the Complex Compounds of Platinum Group, Osmium: Synthesis Characterization and Applications, Help us to further improve by taking part in this short 5 minute survey, Three-Dimensional Cadmium(II) Cyanide Coordination Polymers with Ethoxy-, Butoxy- and Hexyloxy-ethanol, Spacer-Controlled Supramolecular Assemblies of Cu(II) with Bis(2-Hydroxyphenylimine) Ligands. Osmium is the one of the rarest natural element . If the hexacyanoosmate(II) was known for a long time [, As cyanide is a stronger ligand than halides, a promising route to cyanometallates is an exchange of the halides in the corresponding [MHal, The powder diffractogram of the polycrystalline sample for, To the best of our knowledge, it is the first structurally characterized heptacoordinated osmium complex involving seven equivalent ligands. These are used to determine the age of iron meteorites. View Coordination Number.docx from CHM 2353 at University of Ottawa. Osmium is a lustrous & silvery metal taking a spot in the periodic table with an atomic number of 76. It can be dissolved by fused alkalies, especially if an oxidizing agent such as sodium chlorate is present. Learn the uses of osmium, density of osmium & many more. ; Caballol, R.; de Graaf, C. Insights on the photomagnetism in copper octacyanomolybdates. Mondal, A.; Chamoreau, L.-M.; Li, Y.; Journaux, Y.; Seuleiman, M.; Lescouëzec, R. W-Co discrete complex exhibiting photo- and thermo-induced magnetization. Crystalline osmium is not a compound, but a specific crystallisation form of the pure element which, due to its chemical properties, is non-toxic up to 400 °C. ; Berry, J.F. The la… The coordination sphere around osmium is N 3 O 1 P 2 which is slightly distorted octahedral in nature as reflected in all the bond angles with osmium as the central atom. ; Bau, R. Crystallographic studies of transition metal hydride complexes. Crystal structure of potassium heptacyanorhenate(III) dehydrate. Osmium is non-toxic in its crystalline form as long as a temperature of 400 °C is not exceeded. Magnetic Prussian Blue Analogs. A.4.14.The stereospecificity of the reaction establishes the relative stereochemistry of the two oxygen atoms, and the facial stereoselectivity is controlled by induction by the carbon substituents. ; Robinson, S.D. Osmium has the atomic number 76 and an atomic mass of 190.23 u. Number of protons in Osmium is 76. Hydrido complexes of the transition metals. It is the hardest platinum-group metal and having a density 22.61 g / cm³, it is the element with the highest density in the periodic table. Both elements are very rare and are typically found in their elemental states or as sulfides. The anode sludge is dissolved in aqua regia, causing platinum and gold to dissolve. Transcribed Image Text Question 23 1 pts The coordination number and oxidation state of osmium are, respectively, in K [Os (ox)2Br2), where (ox) = C2042 4 and +4 6 and +6 4 and +2 6 and +2 6 and +4 1 pts Question 24 Get more help from Chegg … This work was supported in part by European Commission (PIIFR-GA-2011-911689) and RFBR (gr. Osmium is very difficult to process. Other types of compounds include the coordination complexes of osmium. Discovered in the early 1800's, osmium is a transition metal that has an atomic number of 76 and has useful characteristics. and n.m.r. The Heptacyanotungstate(IV) Anion: A New 5d ransition-Metal Member of the Rare Heptacyanometallate Family of Anions. Peresypkina, E.V. The silver forms insoluble silver chloride which can be separated by nitric acid and lead carbonate. Krauss, А.; Schrader, G. Zur Kenntnis der Cyanverbindungen der Platinmetalle. Some of the heavier transition metals such as ruthenium(Ru), rhodium(Rh), iridium(Ir), osmium(Os) and gold(Au) ... 76 M 3+/ M 2+--0.37-0.26-0.41 +1.57 +0.77 +1.97---Density/g cm-3 3.43 4.1 6.07 7.19 7.21 7.8 8.7 8.9 8.9 7.1 * Effective ionic radii with coordination number 6. The Os thin films were successfully grown between 325 and 375 °C using osmocene and molecular oxygen as precursors. ; Avendaňo, C.; Dunbar, K.R. Microscopic Origin for Multistability in a Photomagnetic CoFe Prussian Blue Analogue. By browsing our website, you agree that we can use cookies as described in our Privacy Policy and this cookie notice. However, parallel formulas can be misleading. This lesson explains detailed facts and uses of osmium. Osmium belongs to the platinum group metals (ruthenium, osmium, rhodium, iridium, palladium and platinum), which are often found together in nature(1). ; Kepert, C.J. In accordance with the predictions of the Kepert model these give linear complexes. Moore, D.S. Constable, E.C. ; Baggio, R.; Garland, M.T. The nomenclature of the complexes is patterned after a system suggested by Alfred Werner, a Swiss chemist and Nobel laureate, whose outstanding work more than 100 years ago laid the foundation for a clearer understanding of these compounds. The authors declare no conflict of interest. doi:10.1016/ 0016 … Volume 5 in the book set “Comprehensive Coordination Chemistry II” (CCCII) presents a survey of important developments in the chemistry of the transition metals of Groups 7 and 8: manganese, technetium, rhenium, iron, ruthenium (Ru) and osmium (Os), published from 1982 to 2002. We express our gratitude to Ruben Checa for the magnetic measurements. Chlorine is added to the solution. With these methods, a more accurate determination is possible. ; Schnegg, A.; Holldack, K.; Nehrkorn, J.; Sigrist, M.; Tregenna-Piggott, P.; Mutka, H.; Weihe, H.; Mironov, V.S. Coordination chemistry: The scientific legacy of Alfred Werner. Van den Heuvel, W.; Hendrickx, M.F.A. The crystal and molecular structure of sodium hexacyanoosmate(II) decahydrate and related hexacyanometalate complexes. Birk, F.J.; Pinkowicz, D.; Dunbar, K.R. The films consisted of only Os metal as osmium oxides were not detected in X-ray diffraction measurements. They are found in ores containing one or more of the other PGMs but are mainly found in platinum ores. McGrady, G.S. In. Within this group, it can be found in the sixth period. surprising colour change, osmium expands its coordination sphere to six, the product is diamagneticand the OH groups are trans(opposite each other). The production of osmium is very complex and usually takes place during the extraction of other metals, such as platinum or gold. Atomic weight of Osmium is 190.23 u or g/mol. Sato, O.; Iyoda, T.; Fujishima, A.; Hashimoto, K. Photoinduced Magnetization of a Cobalt-Iron Cyanide. Osmium is present in nature in elemental form or as alloy with iridium. Find support for a specific problem on the support section of our website. Also the impurity contents of oxygen, carbon, and … OsO2(NH3)4Cl2 + 3 H2 → Os + 4 NH4+ + 2 Cl- + 2 OH-. Molecular magnetic materials based on 4d and 5d transition metals. Pedersen, K.S. Verdaguer, M.; Bleuzen, A.; Marvaud, V.; Vaissermann, J.; Seuleiman, M.; Desplanches, C.; Scuiller, A.; Train, C.; Garde, R.; Gelly, G.; et al. Finally, hydrogen is reduced to metallic osmium. With a value of 462 GPa, it even surpasses diamond. Coordination Number. High-temperature molecular magnets based on cyanovanadate building blocks: Spontaneous magnetization at 230 K. Holmes, S.M. Verdaguer, M.; Girolami, G.S. Its electron configuration is [Xe] 4f14 5d6 6s2. A., J. W. "Osmium, the Densest Metal Known." Reversible hydrogen gas uptake in nanoporous Prussian Blue analogues. ; Van Santen, R.A. Cyanometallates: An underestimated class of molecular sieves. The statements, opinions and data contained in the journals are solely In addition, osmium has the largest bulk modulus of all elements. The ratio of the isotope Osmium-187 to the isotope Osmium-186 is used in rhenium-osmium chronometers. Sol−Gel Synthesis of KV. It also serves to enhance the contrast of cell membranes in electron microscopy. Molecules to build solids: high TC molecule-based magnets by design and recent revival of cyano complexes chemistry. The oxidation number, or oxidation state, of an atom is the charge that would exist on the atom if the bonding were completely ionic. ; Creff, G.; Roy, P.; Bleuzen, A. Currently, osmium is primarily extracted from nickel and platinum ores . It is present in about 50 parts per trillion in the Earth’s crust. Osmium has a bluish-silvery lustre. Am. Available online: Boxhoorn, G.; Moolhuysen, J.; Coolegem, J.G.F. spectroscopy show these complexes are trigonal bipyramidal with the two CO molecules differently bonded to the metal center; axially in the ruthenium complex and equatorially in the osmium complex. For example, manganese forms manganese(III) fl uoride, MnF3, and rhenium forms an References. Coordination Number 2. Several compounds of osmium VIII, including potassium osmiamate and coordination complexes of OsO 4 with ammonia and various heterocyclic nitrogen compounds, have been synthesized and characterized. Please note that many of the page functionalities won't work as expected without javascript enabled. ; Rentschler, E. Crystal Structure and Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Hexacyanoosmate(III). Curtis, J.C.; Meyer, T.J. Outer-sphere charge transfer in mixed-metal ion pairs. Atomic Number of Osmium is 76. In the case of the potassium hexacyanoferrate solution, the paper changes its colour to light green. The Element Osmium - Known Isotopes. Alexander, J.J.; Gray, H.B. ; Housecroft, C.E. ; Hellberg, K.-H.; Werther, H.-H. Darstellung und Eigenschaften von Osmiumheptafluorid. A single chain magnet involving hexacyanoosmate. Coordination complexes also exist with other ligands such as ammonia, cyanide, carbon monoxide, and nitric oxide. Osmium is also found in alloys or copper and nickel, but they are quite rare. ; Mironov, V.S. ; Crabtree, R.H. Technetium & Rhenium: Inorganic & Coordination Chemistry. Carvajal, M.-A. Academic Editors: Thomas Doert and Mathias Wickleder, Received: 9 August 2016 / Revised: 17 August 2016 / Accepted: 18 August 2016 / Published: 23 August 2016, (This article belongs to the Special Issue, The cyanide ligand occupies a special place in coordination chemistry. In coordination chemistry, the coordination number is the number of ligands attached to the central ion (more specifically, the number of donor atoms). Sources, facts, uses, scarcity (SRI), podcasts, alchemical symbols, videos and images. Glemser, O.; Roesky, H.W. The number of bonds depends on the size, charge, and electron configuration of the metal ion and the ligands. If the ligand is organic, an osmocene may be formed. Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center.Please visit their site for more information.. Isotopes With A Known Natural Abundance Picolinic acid is coordinated as a N,O-donor with a bite angle of 76°. ; Schau-Magnussen, M.; Dreiser, J.; Mutka, H.; Barra, A.-L.; Bendix, J. Mn. Please let us know what you think of our products and services. Subscribe to receive issue release notifications and newsletters from MDPI journals, You can make submissions to other journals. To obtain elemental osmium, it is precipitated as a complex with ammonium chloride. In, Pedersen, K.S. Electronic Structures of Hexacyanometalate Complexes. ; Dreiser, J.; Nehrkorn, J.; Gysler, M.; Schau-Magnussen, M.; Schnegg, A.; Holldack, K.; Bittl, R.; Piligkos, S.; Weihe, H.; et al. Cyanide-Bridged Complexes of Transition Metals: A Molecular Magnetism Perspective.

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