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herodotus chapter summaries

They enjoined the Scythian men to get their inheritance, and come and live with the Amazons. This had already happened twice. They keep this in their houses and offer food to it; after a year they put it outside the city. While he was praying, the Tegeans, who were with the Spartans, attacked the Persians, and suddenly the sacrifices turned out well, so the Spartans attacked too. Mardonius realized that he would probably be held responsible for the loss. He sent a dream that his son Atys would be killed by an iron spear point. Furthermore, if the Greeks should retreat, they’ll lose several islands, and the army will follow them on land to the isthmus. Croesus built ships in preparation for attacking the islands, but called off the plan when he heard that the islands were going to attack him with horses. They sacrifice the animal and flay it, and cut off its head. The Persians besieged them for four months and got nowhere, so they built a fort for the Naxian exiles and went away. His mother told him that a phantom in the guise of Ariston (who was really the hero Astrabacus) had lain with her, but after Ariston had taken her to wife. When the child was ten, he revealed his nature when playing with his fellow boys. Xerxes thus became king. Maeandrius was fooled and gave a report Polycrates. They worship Ares, Dionysus, and Artemis. These omens were provided by the seer Hegesistratus the Elean, who had earlier managed to escape a death sentence at Sparta, by chopping off his own foot and thereby escaping the stocks. Rather than surrender, he waited until his food ran out, then destroyed his wife, children, and servants, threw their bodies onto a fire. At one point Egypt was entirely marsh. Because Zeus Ammon once disguised himself as a ram to meet with Heracles (42). The Athenians killed most of these, including the general Eurybates. He then showed the tableau to his generals, and proclaimed that the Persians were quite foolish: they already had meals like. Book 1, The Rise of Cyrus the Great. The court agreed, saying that they should go back to Aegina, in fact that Leotychides himself should be handed to them as well. Their language sounds like the communication of bats. They were there for two years, but nothing good came of it, so some of theme sailed to Delphi. The triremes numbered 1207. Lydians changed their way of life. Following the example of Nitocris, Cyrus changed the flow of the Euphrates, which allowed his men to use the main channel to enter Babylon. Note in Grene: the images of the sons of Aeacus and of Aeacus himself. Description of the four distinct dialects of Ionia. He then compelled Panionius to castrate his four sons, and then for them to castrate their father, thus delivering a just, if brutal, revenge. He carried out his duties well and won a great reputation. The Egyptians say that it was another man’s body, but H. believes this is untrue, an attempt at Egyptian face-saving. They then make the barrow as big as possible. So he collected his men from Libya and headed to Italy. The Ionians were victorious over the Phoenicians at sea, and Onesilius struck at Artybius. Atys objected: people will call him a coward. The Athenians replied to the Spartans: you have nothing to fear. As many men again served in the baggage train. “430 BC – the last chronological event recorded by H.”. 13 - Human Destiny. Egyptian skulls were thick while Persian ones were thin. They captured Athens – completely deserted except for some holdouts on the acropolis, who were treasurers of the temple, and indigent people who believed in the other interpretation of the oracle about the “wooden wall.”. Themistocles then told Eurybiades that to remain would be good and noble, to retreat would be the ruin of Greece – and if he retreated, the Athenians would pack up and leave for Siris in Italy, which was theirs by ancient right and which they are destined to colonize. Pausanias thanked him for this advice but rejected it, saying that such behavior was inherently unjust, and that the victory of Platea was vengeance enough for Leonidas. But the Barcans claimed collective responsibility. Menelaus discovered Helen and his treasure quite intact, but in order to get favorable winds to get home, he sacrificed two native children. He informed his generals that they would conquer Aegina soon enough, and then the grain would be theirs. He died there of illness, however. Leonidas specifically sent the prophet Megistias off, but he didn’t go; instead, he sent off his only son, who was serving in the army. The only people H. knows who live beyond the Ister are the Sigynnae, who wear Medean dress and claim to be a colony of the Medes. Divination from sacrifices came from Egypt, as did processions and assemblies. Dionysus, general of the Phocaeans gave an inspirational talk that they would be victorious, if the Persians attacked at all. The enmity came about in a certain way. Those who did not made a solemn oath that they would dun the traitors one tenth of their goods, and grant them to Delphi, if they were victorious. If he advanced down to the isthmus, there would be another Thermopylae there, only worse. So the Spartans sent for Hippias at Sigeum on the Hellespont, with a view to putting him back in control of Athens. Megabyzus, upon learning that Chalcedon was older than Byzantium, thought the Chalcedonians must have been blind as to have passed over the site now occupied by Byzantium. They have a Linus song that they have sung forever. Amasis kept Apries prisoner for a while, and treated him well, but the Egyptians demanded their revenge, so Amasis handed Apries over to them, and they strangled him. Each man marries a wife, but these are kept in common. Book One Mythical Origins of East-West Conflict. A Bacian prophecy (and some others). They claim to be from Eretria. Herodotus' Histories, book 9. summary and comments by Jona Lendering : Twenty-sixth logos: the battle of Plataea (9.1-89) When Mardonius learns that the Athenians are not willing to come to terms, he mobilizes his army and marches to Athens. Once freed of her princes, Athens became great. Rhampsinitus succeeded Proteus. The Greeks decided to retreat further south. Cyrus asked him why he attacked, and Croesus answered that the gods induced him to do so. The Siphnians refused, and so the Samians conquered them, thereby fulfilling a misunderstood pronouncement from the Oracle. Egyptians and Colchians are also similar in their language, way of life, and especially their weaving. Xerxes was angry at this request, since all of his own family was going into Greece. Apries reigned for twenty-five years and won victories at Tyre and Sidon. The Greeks sacrificed the next day, with favorable results provided by the prophet Deiphonus of Apollonia (on the Ionic gulf). He faced a sentence of death, but his friends, invoking Marathon and his conquest of Lemnos, succeeded in getting him fined fifty talents. Most of the pillars of Sesostris are gone, but a few remain in Palestine. Cyrus crossed the Araxes, and during his first night there he had a dream in which the son of Hystaspes [Darius] grew wings, one of which covered Asia and the other Europe. Dorieus was so angry he led a colonization effort in Libya, but without consulting the oracle. A Hyperborean named Abaris circumambulated the earth carrying an arrow and eating nothing. The twelve cities of Ionia were proud to be called Ionians (others shunned the name on account of the Ionians’ putative “weakness”), and set up the Panionium. After a speech, the young men each killed a Persian. In the face of the invasion of Darius, the Scythians sent embassies to their neighbors, who had already taken counsel together. He also allowed his daughters their own choices in marriage. 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