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herodotus on sparta

The remnant of the Persian army fled north and back to Persia, inflicting damage as they went, and suffering extremely harsh conditions themselves. Remind students that while the events in this lesson were proceeding on land, the Greek fleet had been harassing the Persian fleet on the water. Some teachers may wish to discuss events that followed the battle of Thermopylae. Then after they have buried him, no assembly Herodotus (1.56) says that Sparta and Athens were the major Greek states in the 540s, but nothing else. The ephors also helped to control the kings, since if the kings broke the law the ephors could prosecute them before the council. What effect do you think the storm will have on the outcome of Xerxes' invasion? The Athenian Themistocles, who had played such an important role in building up the fleet, was now one of the fleet's most important commanders. These rights From The History of the Persian Wars, Book VI, 56-60 430 BCE . Evaluate the enduring lessons of Thermopylae. One of the goals of this activity is to help students understand that the battle of Thermopylae was part of a much larger and much more complicated historical context that included the movement of men and animals and ships and supplies as well as the building of bridges and the apparent intervention of the gods and of storms at sea. Use questions generated about individuals and groups to analyze why they, and the developments they shaped, are seen as historically significant. Together these ancient Greek writers became the first true historians in Western civilization. say, about the maiden who inherits her father's property, Modern scholars estimate the population of the Persian Empire at 70 million people, spread over 1 million square miles of territory. But the victories at Thermopylae and Artemisium had harmed Xerxes more than they had helped him. Leonidas (Mid 6th century–480 BCE) was the king of Sparta who led the Spartans at the Battle of Thermopylae (480 BCE). For example, Herodotus gives historians a notion of the size of Sparta’s population, while also pushing the idea of military supremacy. Joseph Isola Professor Roessel Athens To Sparta: GAH 2312 September 26 th 2011 Herodotus On Sparta Herodotus was a Greek historian, known for his famous collection of history, which he titled The Histories. As king, he is known chiefly for his opposition to the co-ruling Spartan king, Cleomenes I. NCSS.D2.His.15.6-8. For example, Herodotus considered Sparta as free, despite the fact that it was undemocratic, lacked a constitution … Herodotus had already written about one war, he … is held among them for ten days, nor is there any meeting They can be assigned as homework or class activities, or a combination of both. Remind your students of the earlier storms that had also destroyed many Persian ships. Gythium –> perioikoi community / import and export port 3.2.1. D2.His.16.6-8. Below are some suggestions for extending the lesson to include other important battles and Xerxes eventual defeat. Organize applicable evidence into a coherent argument about the past. this right, or if he do, he shall be subject to the curse; Analyze connections among events and developments in broader historical contexts. Whenever this happens so, two free persons Croesus retreats back to Lydia, and summons reinforcements from his allies Egypt, Babylon, and Sparta (77). NCSS.D2.His.1.6-8. But he failed in this, and was forced to engage the Greeks at the battle of Plataea in August, 479. Can you detect a trace of Spartan pride in Demaratus' answer to the king? Herodotus is a strange amalgam of Homer, Polybius and Pliny the Elder. Once Thermopylae was lost, the last residents were evacuated from Athens. This lesson is divided into three separate activities which students can access via the EDSITEment LaunchPads. alone give decision on the following cases only, that is to Spartan land, and in the city women go about and strike upon In this lesson students learn about the historical background to the battle and are asked to ponder some of its legacy, including how history is reported and interpreted from different perspectives. Compare the leaders and the armies of the Greeks and the Persians and understand what they reveal about ancient Greek and Persian culture. announce that which has happened throughout the whole of the are the royal rights which have been given by the Spartans This activity also includes links to static maps of the Persian Empire and Greece, as well as links to commentary on key terms and places mentioned in the reading. On the Kings of Sparta by Herodotus: HistoryWiz Primary Source. a certain number of the perioiki are compelled to go to the Why do you think Herodotus includes reports of strange prodigies and portents? This review of the movie on the Livius website may suggest some approaches to comparing Herodotus to later versions of the story of Thermopylae. On the sea, the Greeks had destroyed many more Persian ships. Both sides now played a waiting and watching game. for choice of magistrates, but they have mourning during these Before assigning this activity you may want to review and bookmark some of the following EDSITEment web resources which can be used to enhance this activity. Yet he was not unaware of the greatness of the Persians. days. The King replied, 'It was caused by your good fate and my bad fate. Spartan state; and after they are dead horsemen go round and Herodotus (484-425 BCE) the Greek historian who wrote extensively on the Persian Empire, here describes Persian customs as they would have been practiced around the year 430 BCE at Susa and other Persian communities. ... as it moved closer to war with Sparta. kings has been killed in war, they prepare an image to represent Herodotus tells that the Greeks have to drive off the enemy four times, and finally succeed in dragging the corpse away. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter. When the land battle was lost, the Greek fleet was forced to withdraw. Organize applicable evidence into a coherent argument about the past. Xerxes' attack was exactly what they had been waiting for. Herodotus on Thermopylae Thermopylae (Greek Θερμοπύλαι ; "Hot Gates"): small pass in Greece, site of several battles, of which the Spartan defeat against the Persian invaders in 480 is the most famous. There were about 310–350 triremes in this fleet. five "ephors", who were elected executive officers. Why do you suppose the Spartans are singled out in memorials and by Herodotus? Can you guess the significance of the mountain pathway guarded by the Phocians? namely who ought to have her, if her father have not betrothed the privileges of the kings and give two votes besides their In these passages he tells of Xerxes' resolve to invade Greece and add the Greek city states to his empire. Furthermore, in contrast to the Persian Empire, Greece was not a unified nation or country, but a dispersed group of individual city states, each with its own government. a copper kettle. Revolts against the King were ruthlessly suppressed, and the goals of the Great King were universalistic: like the Assyrian and Sumerian Kings before him, the Persian King believed that he was appointed by god to rule the world. After they have completed their reading, students are asked some of the following questions: The purpose of this activity is to provide background on Xerxes' invasion of Greece and the preparations by the Greeks to defend their homeland. of these and of the helots and of the Spartans themselves Xerxes himself retreated to Persia, accompanied by a force of 70,000 men. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. The Lydian king, Croesus, is seeking a Greek ally for his invasion of Persia and makes inquiries at Athens and Sparta. From now on, Xerxes's war plans had to be more cautious: Despite the huge number of ships with which he had started out, Xerxes could no longer assume absolute numerical superiority on the water. Ancient History Sourcebook: From The History of the Persian Wars, Book VI, ''56-60. The Persians sacked and burned Athens. On September 20, 480 BC, Xerxes could stand it no longer. best history sites on the web. Teachers may assign all three activities or choose among them. Then, the Thebans desert their allies and surrender; the Spartans and Thespians retreat to a small hill, where they are killed by Persian archers. Herodotus covers the empire’s geography, social structure, and history before describing the events which led to Xerxes’ invasion of Greece and the Greek city-states uniting to defeat his army. You may want to review these materials yourself before assigning the activities. This first activity is intended to introduce students to the major participants on each side of the battle: Xerxes, the king and commander of the Persians; and Leonidas, the Spartan king and leader of the Greeks. What parts of the narrative would you object to in Herodotus' retelling if you were a Persian who had fought in the battles or who knew someone who fought for Xerxes. According to Herodotus, the Spartans of his day claimed that Lycurgus’ reforms were inspired by the institutions of Crete. Herodotus and The Histories . What have you learned from reading Herodotus that might alter your understanding of the battle of Thermopylae? Keywords: Herodotus, Cleomenes, Spartan foreign policy, Sparta Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Additionally, the Helots could be conscripted into military duties at times of war. Why do you think Herodotus remarks on the reluctance of the troops from Thebes? Herodotus and Thucydides: Inventing History . Inherited jobs in Sparta: herald, flutist, and cook (60). Why do the Greeks want to meet the Persians at Thermopylae and Artemisium? Begin by asking students to compare how Herodotus describes the Persians and the Spartans. By Sept 5th a remnant force of die-hard defenders on the Athenian acropolis was subdued. first and return last; that a hundred picked men shall be Croesus battles Cyrus at Pteria in Cappadocia (76). Ancient History Sourcebook:Herodotus:On the Kings of Sparta, c. 430 BCE. Any debts to a king expire on his death; this is the same in Persia (59). Based on their reading of selected passages from Herodotus, students will be asked to consider some of the following questions: From the EDSITEment LaunchPad, Students may go directly to the interactive map or begin by reading "The Road to Thermopylae." Passages from Herodotus’ Histories in the EDSITEment LaunchPads are based on the English translation by George Rawlinson (1858–60). Zeos Uranios---and the right of making war against whatsoever For instance, the Greek historian Herodotus records that each of the 5000 Spartiate at the Battle of Plataea in 479 BC was protected by seven light-armed Helots. Erato Aristagoras, the author of the Ionian revolt, perished in the way which I have described. Why do you suppose Herodotus mentions that the Athenians are watching the sea? He had endless resources of money at his disposal, and could promise special favors to anyone who came over to his side. The population had been moved to islands close to Athens. Xerxes headed south, destroying cities on his way. During the reign of Darius the Persian royal family had adopted the Zoroastrian religion, according to which there was only one god, Ahuramazda, who controlled all fates. If students have read the graphic novel 300 by Frank Miller, or seen the movie based on the novel by Zack Snyder (clip below), encourage them to make comparisons and point out differences. NCSS.D2.His.2.6-8. of the elders who are most closely related to them shall have “Μολον Λαωε!” (“Molon Lave—Come and take them!”) was said to be the response by the Spartans at Thermopylae to the Persian demand that the Greeks surrender their weapons. in Macworld The kings themselves had one vote each in the council of elders, and they commanded Spartan armies. Lakonia – State 3.1. without stint, saying that this one who had died last of their Even as Herodotus sometimes offers more than one version of events, his own perspectives and views are clearly the ones that guide his narrative. Cold in winter/hot in summer 2. The goal of this activity is not only to get students thinking about the differences between Xerxes and Leonidas, the Persians and the Greeks, but also to guide them to greater understanding of the way history is represented and interpreted from a specific point of view. Is seeking a Greek and Persian culture suggest some approaches to comparing Herodotus later! 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