An asymptotic response of crop yield to weed density. Although larvae feed on roots, they are not reported to be severe pests of crops. Table 8.6. In field observations in Finland, F. convolvulus was more abundant in clay than in coarse mineral or organic soil (Erviö et al., 1994). In Asia, its geographical distribution ranges from Japan to Iran, down to India and into Indonesia. Plants of Chenopodium album watered with high or low levels of nutrients were larger under high than under low levels of nutrients. Causes of overproduction of weeds in cereals. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB196. A survey of fallow practices and weed floras in wheat stubble and grain sorghum in northern New South Wales. 191-204. Recent results in the chemical weed control of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.). (2013) reported Calystegia hederacea as the most widespread weed in Northern China Plain. In contrast, nitrogen treatments had no effect on germination percentage, and they decreased germination speed of Sinapis arvensis seeds (Luzuriaga et al., 2006). 26 (4), 251-257. Brendler F, 1995. Table 1. The presence of seeds in soils at aged-successional sites implies that they have been there for long periods of time, but the exact age is unknown. Fibre flax. Proceedings of the 49th international symposium on crop protection, Gent, Belgium, 6 May 1997, Part III. Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Rolniczej im. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 71(3):811-820. Cercetari Agronomice Ã®n Moldova, 23(1):53-55; 4 ref. > 10Â°C, Cold average temp. Valkova O, 1975. Bones from cameloids taken from the site were radiocarbon dated as 530Â yr old, and thus it was assumed that the seeds were at least this old (Sivori et al., 1968). Commercial seed is now virtually weed free but weed seed can still be spread around fields by farm machinery or in straw. ], 134(1/2):301-337. http://floraseries.landcareresearch.co.nz/pages/Book.aspx?fileName=Flora%204.xml. If it is assumed that the result of this search reflects the distribution and importance of specific weed species in winter wheat, it can be concluded that broadleaved and grass weeds dominate the weed flora of wheat, while sedges are rarely found in wheat fields. The list of references resulting from this survey is shown in Table 1. 1109. In: Holzner W, Numata M, eds. Insects that have been cited as using F. convolvulus as a host are Gastrophysa polygoni (Forsberg, 1955; Kjaer and Elmegaard, 1996), Coleophora therinella and C. peribenanderi (van der Wolf, 1992). . However, where the yield of an individual plant part is important (e.g., in size-graded vegetables such as carrots, Daucus carota sativa, or parsnips, Pastinaca sativa) then an alternative equation may be more useful. Proceedings of the Western Society of Weed Science, 39:158-159. In: Brighton crop protection conference: weeds. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm, Adkins S W, Wills D, Boersma M, Walker S R, Robinson G, McLeod R J, Einam J P, 1997. The biology of Canadian weeds. Stoimenova I, Taleva A, Mikova A, 1995. In: Technical Report, Agricultural Research Council, Weed Research Organization, 26 pp. Journal of Agricultural Science in Finland, 62(4):331-337. Koch (1964) observed a stimulation in emergence of F. convolvulus by harrowing, which could be taken advantage of in the control of this weed in cereal cultivation. Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes, 16:45-53. Weed Research (Oxford). Swedish Crop Protection Conference. Nevertheless, there are several methods suggested which could be used to reduce possible yield losses caused by this weed. Wylie (1984) observed parasitism of hop flea beetles by Microctonus punctulatae Loan and Wylie and Townesilitus psylliodis Loan (both Hymenoptera: Braconidae); the latter seems to attack only hop flea beetle. Depth of burial in the soil, number and type of cultivations, soil type and weed species affect the rate of decline. The pupa greatly resembles the adult beetle in form. Weed control and herbicide tolerance in a common vetch-oat intercrop. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 57(1):243-249. Wilson KL, 2008. Synonyms. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. Mitchell RB; Abernethy RJ, 1993. In: Mededelingen - Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent [Proceedings of the 49th international symposium on crop protection, Gent, Belgium, 6 May 1997, Part III. The biological significance of rutin and prospects for its usage as a diagnostic trait in selection are also shown in the chapter. The weediness of cereals. 107-114. (Phenmedipham og triallat i spinat til frÃ¸.). it is a human commensal), Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year, Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally, Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant, Difficult to identify/detect in the field. Control of annual grasses and certain broad-leaved weeds in sugarbeet, maize and other field crops with Hercules 22 234. Broadleaf Weed Control and Crop Safety with Premixed Pyrasulfotole and Bromoxynil in Winter Wheat. In: Brighton crop protection conference: weeds. Mortensen K; Molloy MM, 1993. Weed Technology, 8(2):231-237. Forcella F; Wilson RG; Dekker J; Kremer RJ; Cardina J; Anderson RL; Alm D; Renner KA; Harvey RG; Clay S; Buhler DD, 1997. Schultz G E, Tichota J M, 1981. Khimiya v Sel'skom Khozyaistve, 24(1):44-46. PamiÄtnik PuÅawski. Himme M van, Stryckers J, Bulcke R, 1983. In: Proceedings of the Western Society of Weed Science. Muhammad Banaras, 1993. Mitich L W, 1975. 3:50-56; 13 ref. 1. Annals of Applied Biology, 130(2):255-260; 17 ref. Orchard AE, 1994. Kazantseva AS; Tuganaev VV, 1972. Bain OG; Johnson JL, 1986. Other weed species may occur locally or may be limited to specific crops in which they create a problem, but are otherwise not too difficult to manage, particularly if herbicides are incorporated into the weed management plan. ], Paris, France: COLUMA/EWRS. Chloroplastic resistance of weeds to triazines in the Netherlands until 1988. are common in winter wheat, while the most frequently occurring weeds in spring wheat are C. album, C. arvense, Convolvulus arvensis, Descurainia sophia, F. convolvulus, and Sonchus arvensis, and the grasses A. fatua and S. viridis (Kraehmer, 2016). Great care was taken to avoid contamination by wind-blown seeds, but there is no way to be absolutely sure that soil-dwelling animals such as earthworms had not moved recently matured seeds into areas that were sampled. Weed Science, 16:204 208. Different results have been published regarding the effects of tillage techniques as a means for weed control. Hanf M, 1982. Holm L G, Plucknett D L, Pancho J V, Herberger J P, 1977. [Proceedings of the Western Society of Weed Science. The mapping of arable weeds as a basis for the objective use of herbicides. Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. In: Holzner W, Numata M, eds. Gastrophysa polygoni L., a beetle that attacks wild buckwheat (Polygonum convolvulus). Stryckers, J.; Himme, M. van: Review of the results obtained for the cropping year 1972-73 by the Centrum voor Onkruidonderzoek.