This led to the growth of constructivism, according to which knowledge is ‘constructed’ by the learner. Children learn from parents, teachers, environment, nature, media etc. The visual, auditory and kinaesthetic model, according to which people learn by one of seeing, hearing or doing, has had much influence in schools but lacks a scientific basis. There are three types of memory: short-term memory, working memory, and long-term memory. Learning at school requires students to pay attention, to observe, to memorize, to understand, to set goals and to assume responsibility for their own learning. 3. 2. Learning as memorising. learning strategies, and how to measure outcomes, while taking care of feedback, judgements and rewards. 2. The social and physical environment in which children learn can make a difference in their academic success. 5. Autonomous – the learner likes to have the teacher as a resource, but to have influence over the content and structure of what is learnt. Kolb’s model was further developed by the British psychologists Honey and Mumford (1992), who developed the Learning Styles Questionnaire and whose well-known model summarized in the table below broadly corresponds with Kolb’s typology (see third column): Honey and Mumford make no claim for their questionnaire being a psychological test, seeing it rather as something which can help managers think, and it has been highly influential in training. Allinson and Hayes (1996) are examples of researchers who describe learning styles in terms of cognitive attributes. Pask, G. (1976), ‘Conversational techniques in the study and practice of education’. A wooden presentation is not conducive to learning. Practical learners who adopt the right strategy for the task in hand, enjoy problem solving and learn by practical application of theory. ADVERTISEMENTS: Learning: Meaning, Nature, Types and Theories of Learning! Learn by doing, and tend to be extrovert people who get on with things, thriving on challenge and. (1996), ‘The Cognitive Style Index: a measure of intuition-analysis for organisational research’. Sadler-Smith (1996) summarizes the stages thus: Learning is thus a process of observation, reflection, abstraction and experimentation. Capturing students’ attention will ensure that material enters short-term memory; the goal however is for something to enter long-term memory, the storage system, and be ready for retrieval. The similarity between the two approaches can further be seen in this diagram of Kolb’s cycle (Rodwell, 2005): Some learning styles are given descriptors based on cognitive attributes, most often described in terms of the dimensions of wholistic/analytic or verbalizer/imager. Learning as acquiring facts, skills, and methods that can be retained and usedas necessary. Some years ago, Säljö (1979) carried out a simple, but very useful piece of research. Learning based on discussion – the learner flourishes in a group, likes the exchange of ideas. The model of learning described by Kolb has been outlined above. A second major source of learning is through observation. By making the learning active – more likely to encourage recall than passive learning. A review of the research on study approach and style’. Learning Process: Kolb's (1984) ‘Experiential Learning Style Theory’ is typically represented by a four STAGES learning cycle in which the learner 'touches all the bases‘. Such learners will flourish with distance learning or resource-based learning. Learners should be encourages to adopt other styles, and above all, to develop awareness of the ways in which they learn, think, perceive and memorize – metacognition. By making the information more ‘meaningful’, for example by linking it to existing knowledge, by giving it a structure, or by providing a brief overview at the beginning (‘In this lecture we shall be looking at X, Y and Z.’). According to them the main focus is on the instructor-student relationship. Such awareness is probably the best gift you can give your students. Learning ‘baggage’ may also play a part, for example people may have been oriented towards a particular method at school, or indeed put off learning altogether. 3. Change must be relatively permanent: This means that after “learning” our behavior must be different, either better or worse as compared to our behaviour prior to this learning experience. Motivation, persistence, conformity, ability to multi-task etc. The first two are conscious memory; the latter is a storage system of vast capacity which under the right circumstances can move items back to working memory. We shall look below at some of the more common ones. Case study of school students to understand nature of learner and learning process rating. Learning is the process of change which enables an organism itself to the environment, it is therfore a process of development and growth and it is characterized by flexibility because the individual has to adapt itself constantly to the circumstances of the environment. Learning is through Experience. There is currently great emphasis on ‘active learning’, wherein the student is an active participant by means of activities, feedback and discussion etc. The importance of the background and culture of the learner Meaning of Learning. (2005), ‘The assessment of formal management development’. Nature is an unbeatable source of inspiration – not just in the sense of creating art but also nature helps to clear head, gain perspective and become more creative at problem-solving. Learning styles and the nature of learning, By providing visual stimuli along with the verbal. Teach using various methods – there is benefit in both matching and ‘mismatching’ the style of the learner. The role of the learning facilitator, therefore, is to provide relevant and useful stimuli so that the learner responds to and gains the required knowledge or experience.The behaviourist approach to learning centres around the belief that appropriate behaviour can be taught through constant repetition of a task combined with feedback from the facilitator. 149-50), is "organized into mental packages (‘minitheories’) that are developed to provide clear interpretation and smooth expertise in familiar domains of experience.". Kukla (2000) argues that reality is constructed by our own activities and that people, together as members of a society, invent the properties of the world. The attention process is influenced by the model, the observer, and incentive conditions. The above views see learning as a one-off process; others see it as a cycle. He further states that learning is not a process that only takes place inside our minds, nor is it a passive development of our behaviours that is shaped by external forces and that meaningful learning occurs when individuals are engaged in social activities. It also places learning into the hands of students themselves, so they can witness their own process and cultivate self-improvement strategies that support lifelong learning. The native capacity of the individual is of prime importance in determining the effectiveness of the, learning process. 4. This creates a dynamic interaction between task, instructor and learner. Natural problem solvers, with an objective viewpoint, who adapt observations into theories, and learn from systems, models and concepts. One major source of learning is through response consequences. This change may range from the acquisition of a relatively simple skill, item of information to the mastery of complicated mechanical performance and application of difficult and abstract reading material, change in response or behavior is caused partly or wholly by experience. Gage and Berliner (1988) give a good overview of what happens in cognitive learning, when we process ‘meaningful verbal material’. This entails that learners and instructors should develop an awareness of each other's viewpoints and then look to own beliefs, standards and values, thus being both subjective and objective at the same time. For example, most teaching is done through lectures, where the teacher talks to convey the important points. Sequeira (2012) observed teaching as a set of events, outside the learners which are designed to support internal process of learning. Ideas on learning are mostly rooted in the work of psychologists working in the area of educational or cognitive psychology. Action Learning: the learners play a much more active role in determining the objectives of the learning than in guided learning; there is a strong element of learner … This page is older archived content from an older version of the Emerald Publishing website. © 2004-2020 K12academics.com — All Rights Reserved. Learning requires the active, constructive involvement of the learner. and Hayes, J. An obvious example of such attention grabbing is that fact that most people remember what they were doing at the time of significant events, such as 9/11. 4. The nature of the learner. (Sadler-Smith, 1996), Learning style is ‘…the way each learner begins to concentrate on, process and retain new information’ (Dunn et al., 1994, p.2, quoted in Böstrum and Lassen, 2006). However, there has been little research on cognitive learning styles and performance (Spicer, 2004). Beware of labelling students, and be aware of the role of culture in learning styles. Knowledge of the nature of the pupil’s intellect is of considerable value in the guidance and the diagnosis of disability. For information to enter conscious memory, our attention needs to be grabbed; this is even more the case if something is to be moved to long-term memory. A true learner is the one who never compromise on his/her zeal to learn something new and never carry an attitude of ‘’I know it’’ all. all help here, as do attractively presented visuals using colour and images. It’s generally accepted that they do not, and that many factors affect learning – hence the interest in learning ‘styles’. For all constructivists, however, the most important question is, what goes on in the mind of the learner? Learning better achieved alone, with peers in a group, with authoritative adult etc. In the surface approach, learners are more concerned with ‘simply memorizing’ the text and don’t ‘argue with it’ or make any attempt to relate it to the broader canvas of their knowledge. Other constructivist scholars agree with this and emphasize that individuals make meanings through the interactions with each other and with the environment they live in. Social constructivist scholars view learning as an active process where learners should learn to discover principles, concepts and facts for themselves, hence the importance of encouraging guesswork and intuitive thinking in learners. Through practical activity a child constructs meaning on an intrapersonal level, while speech connects this meaning with the interpersonal world shared by the child and her/his culture. Learning is Continuous. That’s where visible learning comes in. The social constructivist model thus emphasizes the importance of the relationship between the student and the instructor in the learning process. Dunn, R., Dunn, K., and Perrin, J. The Essential Steps of the Learning Process. However, psychologists became more and more interested in what was going on inside the brain, due partly to the growth of neuroscience and of cognitive psychology. Addressing the whole learner in developmentally appropriate ways includes establishing positive student relationships and listening to each learner’s voice in creating productive learning climates. It consists of 38 items, 21 representing analysis and 17 intuition; the results are summed and then divided by the number of items in that dimension, with the higher the score, the stronger the tendency towards that particular descriptor. 4. Motivation is also key to learning: Entwistle began in the 1970s to explore ideas of deep learning and surface learning (Tickle, 2001). By getting students to recite material – engaging the psychomotor responses of speech, and the auditory sense. Every single aspect of learning in nature already predetermined to influence and generate sensory experiences and involve all senses into the learning process. He gave the following descriptors to these stages: The idea is that learning demands ‘both a grasp or figurative representation of experience and some transformation of that representation’ (Rodwell, 2005). Additionally, learning styles may not be fixed universal attributes but may be the result of cultural influences: some students may be more used to a very lecture-dependent approach. Learning is storing information that can be reproduced. ; This is represented on the diagram as two axis dividing the cycle into four quadrants. Green and Gredler (2002) emphasize learning as an iterative process, involving discursive, adaptive, interactive, and reflexive qualities. Rodwell, J. Social constructivism not only acknowledges the uniqueness and complexity of the learner, but actually encourages, utilizes and rewards it as an integral part of the learning process. Letting kids spend time in settings with natural elements or giving them structured nature experiences can make for a calmer, socially safe, and fun learning environment. Evans and Sadler-Smith (2006) make a number of useful recommendations on learning styles, which arise out of the 10th Annual Learning Styles Information Network Conference (July 2005, University of Surrey): What is important from a teaching point of view is not just to follow the learners’ (presumed) styles but offer learner-centred teaching that offers choice, variety in modes of delivery and teaching styles, and clarity in goals, feedback, assessment instructions etc. A further characteristic of the role of the facilitator in the social constructivist viewpoint, is that the instructor and the learners are equally involved in learning from each other as well. McMahon (1997) agrees that learning is a social process. For example, highly motivated students may learn at their own speed (contract activity packages); others may learn in small steps but without supervision (program learning sequences); each student has one perceptual mode which is stronger, and it is important to reinforce through that mode (multi-sensory instructional packages – for example lectures for an auditory student). According to dual coding theory, information is best recalled if it is stored in both verbal and visual form. The nature of learning Behaviourism and constructivism. The task or problem is thus the interface between the instructor and the learner. In order to understand mental processes, we need to know how the brain functions; thus cognitive psychology lays particular emphasis on memory and recall. This article provides helpful information regarding nature versus nurture and how a child’s environment can encourage their academic potential. He asked adult students what they understood by learning. Do people learn in the same way? Sadler-Smith, E. (1996), ‘Learning styles: a holistic approach’. As stated above, there is little research or theoretical underpinning to learning styles, and while anecdotal evidence points to the value of including a range of different styles to accommodate various needs, many do not consider that the teacher should automatically match teaching method to the learner. A learning style differs from a learning strategy, which is a more conscious plan of action as to how to acquire new knowledge, skills or attitudes, and from learning preferences, which is how people prefer to be taught, for example a person may opt for one of the following (Sadler-Smith, 1996): There are many different models or how people learn, but little theoretical underpinning for these models or research as to which are the most effective.