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echinacea side effects

Toxicity of Echinacea purpurea. Taking echinacea along with some medications might increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Lawrenson JA, Walls T, Day AS. View abstract. Phytomedicine 2003;10:66-86. View abstract. Common side effects include jitteriness, headache, and fast heartbeat. . Severe thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) induced or exacerbated by the immunostimulatory herb Echinacea. View abstract. View abstract. 1993;15(5):605-614. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Parnham MJ. Maybe, but not by much. View abstract. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:3141-3. View abstract. Macrophage activation by the polysaccharide arabinogalactan isolated from plant cell cultures of Echinacea purpurea. Jalloh MA, Gregory PJ, Hein D, et al. Echinacea is an herbal supplements which can be used as treatment for the common cold, herpes simplex infection (), immunostimulant, psoriasis (topical), upper respiratory tract infections (), urinary tract infections, vaginal yeast infection, skin wounds (topical), and for skin ulcers (topical). View abstract. The most common side effects of echinacea are digestive tract symptoms, such as nausea or stomach pain. Taking midazolam with echinacea increases how much midazolam the body absorbs. 2016;13(3):324-38. doi: 10.3109/19390211.2015.1036189. Dosage of Goldenseal Root. View abstract. Use of echinacea for the treatment of anxiety and cancer has been investigated. While echinacea and goldenseal can be most beneficial together, they do come with their own side effects. Early research shows that taking a specific liquid echinacea extract three times daily for 3 days at the first sign of a common cold does not prevent an ear infection in children 1-5 years-old with a history of ear infections. Sperber SJ, Shah LP, Gilbert RD, et al. Pharmacother 2000;20:690-7. They multiply the activity of the immune system and increase white blood cells. Clin Infect Dis 2004;38:1367-71. Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Echinacea-based dietary supplement does not increase maximal aerobic capacity in endurance-trained men and women. If these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor. 2013;27:54-61. The anxiolytic potential and psychotropic side effects of an echinacea preparation in laboratory animals and healthy volunteers. C, et al. [Therapy of herpes simplex in practice. Haller J, Krecsak L, Zámbori J. Double-blind placebo controlled trial of the anxiolytic effects of a standardized Echinacea extract. Linde K, Barrett B, Wolkart K, et al. Phytomedicine 1999;6:1-6.. View abstract. Phytomedicine 2000;7:273-82. This article reviews the benefits, uses, side effects and dosage of echinacea. JAMA. Evaluation of Echinacea for treatment of the common cold. Mullins RJ. Haller J, Freund, TF, Pelczer, KG, et al. Although the benefits of echinacea for the common cold are uncertain, the risks seem to be low. Mistrangelo M, Cornaglia S, Pizzio M, et al. Common side effects may … Bendel R, Bendel V, Renner K, et al. View abstract. Learn More. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances. Before taking echinacea, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver. Stevenson JL, Krishnan S, Inigo MM, Stamatikos AD, Gonzales JU, Cooper JA. Ann Intern Med 2002;137:939-46.. View abstract. root extract. View abstract. 1989;12 Suppl 3:32-8. Echinacea has a long history of being used as an herbal treatment. Immunostimulation to reduce recurrence after surgery for anal condyloma acuminata: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Ann.Fam.Med 2011;9:312-22. Woelkart, K., Marth, E., Suter, A., Schoop, R., Raggam, R. B., Koidl, C., Kleinhappl, B., and Bauer, R. Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of Echinacea purpurea preparations and their interaction with the immune system. Phytomedicine 1996;3:95-102. Minerva Pediatr, 2019;71(6):500-4. Melchart D, Clemm C, Weber B, et al. WebMD does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Perri D, Dugoua JJ, Mills E, Koren G. Safety and efficacy of echinacea (Echinacea augustafolia, e. purpurea and e. pallida) during pregnancy and lactation. Anti-inflammatory and cicatrizing activity of Echinacea pallida Nutt. Evaluation of echinacea for the prevention and treatment of the common cold: a meta-analysis. View abstract. View abstract. A randomized controlled trial of the effect of fluid extract of Echinacea purpurea on the incidence and severity of colds and respiratory infections. 4+ Health Benefits of Echinacea + Side Effects - SelfHacked Echinacoside and caffeoyl conjugates protect collagen from free radical-induced degradation: a potential use of echinacea extracts in the prevention of skin photodamage. View abstract. Melchart D, Walther E, Linde K, et al. Running economy and maximal oxygen consumption after 4 weeks of oral Echinacea supplementation. View abstract. Gorski JC, Huang S, Zaheer NA, et al. Clin Ther 2006;28:174-83. Medications that decrease the immune system (Immunosuppressants) interacts with ECHINACEA. 11-20-1982;58:1795-98. Phytomed 1996;3:95-102. Hoheisel O, Sandberg M, Bertram S, et al. Int.J Immunopharmacol. Taking echinacea after catching a cold doesn't seem to have much benefit. Effect of an herbal mouth rinse in preventing periodontal inflammation in an experimental gingivitis model: a pilot study. View abstract. Lindenmuth GF, Lindenmuth EB. Effects of echinacea on the frequency of upper respiratory tract symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Those most commonly studied are E. purpurea, E. pallida, and E. Some of the medications that are changed by the liver include clozapine (Clozaril), cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril), fluvoxamine (Luvox), haloperidol (Haldol), imipramine (Tofranil), mexiletine (Mexitil), olanzapine (Zyprexa), pentazocine (Talwin), propranolol (Inderal), tacrine (Cognex), theophylline, zileuton (Zyflo), zolmitriptan (Zomig), and others. Z Allg Med 1985;61:271-273. In vitro inhibition of CYP3A4 by the multiherbal commercial product Sambucus Force and its main constituents Echinacea purpurea and Sambucus nigra. Goey AK, Meijerman I, Rosing H, et al. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). View abstract. Tell each of your healthcare providers about all your medical conditions, allergies, and all medicines you use. Allergic reactions to Echinacea. View abstract. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2000;44:1708-9. Some research shows that drinking a product containing echinacea and elderberry five times a day for 3 days then three times a day for 7 days might help improve flu symptoms similar to the prescription medication, oseltamivir (Tamiflu). View abstract. Echinacea Side Effects. View abstract. Ear infections actually seemed to increase. The warnings about negative effects of echinacea use in people with immune disorders are based on laboratory studies. View abstract. J Dermatol Sci. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD000530.pub3. J Diet Suppl. View abstract. Thompson, K. D. Antiviral activity of Viracea against acyclovir susceptible and acyclovir resistant strains of herpes simplex virus. Anxiety. Raus K, Pleschka S, Klein P, Schoop R, Fisher P. Effect of an echinacea-based hot drink versus oseltamivir in Influenza treatment: a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter, noninferiority clinical trial. Plant Med 2000;66:241-4. View abstract. J Altern Complement Med 2005;11:433-9. Side effects The National Institutes of Health (NIH) note that taking Echinacea by mouth for a short time is probably safe, but the effects of long-term use are unclear. A sexually transmitted infection that can lead to genital warts or cancer (human papillomavirus or HPV). This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Echinacea purpurea and osteopathic manipulative treatment in children with recurrent otitis media: a randomized controlled trial. This may occur with or without food on the stomach when taking Echinacea. All information will be used in a manner consistent with the WebMD, Smart Grocery Shopping When You Have Diabetes, Surprising Things You Didn't Know About Dogs and Cats, Coronavirus in Context: Interviews With Experts. This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Oral administration of freshly expressed juice of Echinacea purpurea herbs fail to stimulate the nonspecific immune response in healthy young men: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. View abstract. Evidence on the effect of echinacea for the treatment of herpes is unclear. When taken by mouth, it can cause nausea, sore throat and numbness and tingling in the mouth. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Report on the treatment of herpes simplex labialis with Esberitox]. Phytother Res 2002;16:138-42.. View abstract. J Natl Cancer Inst 1989;81:669-75. View abstract. Polysaccharides isolated from Echinacea purpurea herba cell cultures to counteract undesired effects of chemotherapy--a pilot study. Di Pierro F, Rapacioli G, Ferrara T, Togni S. Use of a standardized extract from Echinacea angustifolia (Polinacea) for the prevention of respiratory tract infections. View abstract. Subscribe to Drugs.com newsletters for the latest medication news, new drug approvals, alerts and updates. N Engl J Med 2005;353:341-8. Early research shows that taking 50 drops of a product containing echinacea three times daily for 2 weeks, along with an antibiotic, reduces sore throat and increases overall well-being in people with tonsillitis. The Side Effects of Echinacea Tea. But taking less than 40 mg per day does not seem to be effective. No Echinacea side effects observed when applied to the skin directly. Increased liver enzyme activity, a symptom of liver damage, has been noted in liver transplant patients who take large doses of echinacea, according to MedlinePlus. Echinacea enhances the Immune system. 2015;20;77:66-72. doi: 10.1016/j.curtheres.2015.04.001. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. View abstract. O'Neil J, Hughes S, Lourie A, Zweifler J. Whitehead MT, Martin TD, Scheett TP, et al. This survey is being conducted by the WebMD marketing sciences department. 2012;33:204-11. 12-1-2010;47(5):700-705. View abstract. Can Pharm J 1991; 124:512-6. 2019;17(5):338-343. Compend.Contin.Educ.Dent. It is unknown if echinacea has any benefit in people who are not vaccinated. In vitro inhibition of cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase by alkamides from Echinacea and Achillea species. A. Echinacea purpurea significantly induces cytochrome P450 3A activity but does not alter lopinavir-ritonavir exposure in healthy subjects. Int J STD AIDS 2001;12:154-8. Medications changed by the body (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates) interacts with ECHINACEA. Echinacea purpurea-derived alkylamides exhibit potent anti-inflammatory effects and alleviate clinical symptoms of atopic eczema. J Clin Pharmacol 2005;45(6):683-689. Dietary supplement interactions with antiretrovirals: a systematic review. Dec. 20, 2006 - The popular herb echinacea has a side effect: It changes the balance of gut bacteria, a small study shows. Schroder-Aasen T, Molden G, Nilsen OG. View abstract. This can result in the sickness not lasting as long. Barrett B, Brown R, Rakel D. et al. Luettig B, Steinmuller C, Gifford GE, et al. View abstract. Liatsos, G., Elefsiniotis, I., Todorova, R., and Moulakakis, A. 2017 Jan;28(1):4-15. Pharmacotherapy 2010;30(8):797-805. Yale SH, Glurich I. Schapowal A, Berger D, Klein P, et al. Sharma, M., Schoop, R., Suter, A., and Hudson, J. A randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind clinical trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012;2012:841315. Side effects. The effect of echinacea (Echinacea purpurea root) on cytochrome P450 activity in vivo.Clin Pharmacol Ther 2003;73 (Abstract PDII-A-8):P94. Moltó J, Valle M, Miranda C, et al. Echinacea might decrease how quickly the body breaks down caffeine. Barrett B. Brinkeborn RM, Shah DV, Degenring FH. echinacea goldenseal side effects Echinacea and goldenseal are non-specific stimulators, which make the body capable of resisting all kinds of disease. Phytother.Res 2011;25(8):1125-1132. J Postgrad Med. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of echinacea and policosanol with warfarin in healthy subjects. Caruso TJ, Gwaltney JM Jr. Turner RB, Riker DK, Gangemi JD. View abstract. 28 November, 2018 . Although not all side effects are known, echinacea is thought to be possibly safe when taken for a short period of time. Recurrent erythema nodosum associated with echinacea herbal therapy. Echinacea and truth in labeling. Native Americans had studied Echinacea uses in treating various diseases. Does the extract of the plant Echinacea purpurea influence the clinical course of recurrent genital herpes? Toselli, F., Matthias, A., Bone, K. M., Gillam, E. M., and Lehmann, R. P. Metabolism of the major Echinacea alkylamide N-isobutyldodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10Z-tetraenamide by human recombinant cytochrome P450 enzymes and human liver microsomes. Eur J Clin Res 1997;9:261-268. Consumption of echinacea tea is not suggested during pregnancy and breastfeeding or for children below age 12. Taking echinacea along with caffeine might cause too much caffeine in the bloodstream and increase the risk of side effects. Echinacea might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. 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E. and Franco, K. N. Possible leukopenia associated with long-term use of echinacea. Tragni E, Tubaro A, Melis S, Galli CL. A proprietary extract from the echinacea plant (Echinacea purpurea) enhances systemic immune response during a common cold. Eur.J Med Res 9-1-2009;14:406-12. All rights reserved. View abstract. Grimm W, Muller HH. They believe it stimulates the immune system. Ondrizek RR, Chan PJ, Patton WC, King A. Inhibition of human sperm motility by specific herbs used in alternative medicine. It has been used as a traditional herbal remedy since the 18th century for a range of conditions from pain relief to snake bites, and even anthrax infections.1,2 Nowadays, echinacea is commonly used to reliev… Primary information, health benefits, side effects, usage, and other important details What is Echinacea? The effect of Echinacea purpurea on the pharmacokinetics of docetaxel. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;104:S340-341 (Abstract 1003). View abstract. J Immunother 2002;25:413-20.. View abstract. Arzneimittelforschung 1991;41:1076-81. This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold. Warts. Analysis of the inhibitory potential of Ginkgo biloba, Echinacea purpurea, and Serenoa repens on the metabolic activity of cytochrome P450 3A4, 2D6, and 2C9. Placebo effects and the common cold: a randomized controlled trial. [Additional treatment with Esberitox N in patients with chemo- radiotherapy treatment of advanced breast cancer]. Some research shows that taking an echinacea extract twice daily for 6 months does not seem to prevent genital herpes or make them less frequent or severe. Phytother Res 2012;26(11):1606-13. View abstract. J Altern Complement Med 2000;6:327-34. Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold. Swelling (inflammation) of the eye (uveitis). Like many herbs, echinacea is particularly healing for the stomach and … Written by Holly L. Roberts . View abstract. View abstract. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2012;56(10):5328-31. Echinacea might decrease how quickly the body breaks down caffeine. Barth A, Hovhannisyan A, Jamalyan K, Narimanyan M. Antitussive effect of a fixed combination of Justicia adhatoda, Echinacea purpurea and Eleutherococcus senticosus extracts in patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection: A comparative, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Eczema (atopic dermatitis). Side Effects. We comply with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information -. View abstract. Some medications changed by the body include lovastatin (Mevacor), clarithromycin (Biaxin), cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune), diltiazem (Cardizem), estrogens, indinavir (Crixivan), triazolam (Halcion), and many others. View abstract. Echinagard treatment shortens the course of the common cold: a double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. View abstract. Arch Intern Med 2003;163:699-704. View abstract. Nausea, numbness/tingling of the lips/tongue, and an unpleasant taste in the mouth may occur. Follow all directions on the product label and package. Steinmuller, C., Roesler, J., Grottrup, E., Franke, G., Wagner, H., and Lohmann-Matthes, M. L. Polysaccharides isolated from plant cell cultures of Echinacea purpurea enhance the resistance of immunosuppressed mice against systemic infections with Candida albicans and Listeria monocytogenes. 2015 Nov;97(Pt A):8-14. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2015.09.021. [Supplementary treatment with Esberitox of female patients undergoing curative adjuvant irradiation following breast cancer]. An in vitro evaluation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition by selected commercial herbal extracts and tinctures. Early research shows that taking 40 mg of a specific echinacea extract (ExtractumPharma ZRT) one or two times per day for 7 days reduces anxiety. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you. View abstract. Gabranis I, Koufakis T1, Papakrivos I, Batala S. Echinacea-associated acute cholestatic hepatitis. (check all that apply). Pharmacokinetics and immunomodulatory effect of lipophilic Echinacea extract formulated in softgel capsules. Echinacea. Karsch-Völk M1, Barrett B2, Linde K1. An evaluation of Echinacea angustifolia in experimental rhinovirus infections. Am J Health Syst Pharm 1999;56:121-3. (Accessed 21 October 2012). View abstract. View abstract. Schoop R, Klein P, Suter A, Johnston SL. T… J Agric Food Chem 2000;48(5):1466-1472. Food Chem Toxicol 1985;23:317-9.. View abstract. Muller-Jakic B, Breu W, Probstle A, et al. View abstract. Grbic J, Wexler I, Celenti R, et al. The term 'echinacea' refers to a genera of plants, and a few species in this family including purpurea and angustifolia are desired due to their alkylamide content (seen as … View abstract. Applying this Homeopathic Mother Tincture directly to the wound can heal within 3 days. Many people use echinacea as a dietary supplement for infections such as the common cold. J Am Board Fam.Pract. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;(1):CD000530. Speroni E, Govoni P, Guizzardi S, et al. 2015;22(13):1195-200. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2015.10.001. Echinaforce and other Echinacea fresh plant preparations in the treatment of the common cold. 2011;146:191-95. An alternative medicine study of herbal effects on the penetration of zona-free hamster oocytes and the integrity of sperm deoxyribonucleic acid. Samuels N, Grbic JT, Saffer AJ, et al. View abstract. G.Ital Dermatol Venereol. Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.. Bossaer JB and Odle BL. von Blumroeder, W. O. Echinacea. Six weeks of oral Echinacea purpurea supplementation does not enhance the production of serum erythropoietin or erythropoietic status in recreationally active males with above-average aerobic fitness. Binns SE, Purgina B, Bergeron C. Light-mediated antifungal activity of Echinacea extracts. Neri PG, Stagni R, Filippello M, et al. Dall'Acqua S, Perissutti B, Grabnar I, Farra R, Comar M, Agostinis C, et al. Early research shows that taking echinacea four times daily for 28 days increases oxygen intake during exercise tests in healthy men. J Am Acad Dermatol 2001;44:298-9. The efficacy of echinacea compound herbal tea preparation on the severity and duration of upper respiratory and flu symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Early research shows that taking echinacea 150 mg twice daily, in addition to eye drops and a steroid for 4 weeks, doesn't improve vision any more than using only eye drops and steroids in people with this condition. One of the most common Echinacea side effects is nausea or stomach upset. Increased Immunity lowers the chances of getting sick. Samuels N, Saffer A, Wexler ID, et al. Giles JT, Palat CT III, Chien SH, et al. Echinacea-induced acute liver failure in a child. 2010;21(11):1045-1059. Phytother Res, 2020;34(3):660-8. Before taking echinacea, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the body. Phytother.Res 2010;24(8):1195-1201. View abstract. Int.J Biol.Macromol. Arch Dermatol 2004;140:723-7. Can J Clin Pharmacol 2006;13:e262-7. Facino RM, Carini M, Aldini G, et al. View abstract. Data sources include IBM Watson Micromedex (updated 2 Nov 2020), Cerner Multum™ (updated 2 Nov 2020), ASHP (updated 23 Oct 2020) and others. Hansen TS, Nilsen OG. Mengs U, Clare CB, Poiley JA. It is an aborigine of eastern and central North America. If you have gone through a liver transplant and consume echinacea for as long as … This might increase the effects and side effects of midazolam, but more information is needed. View abstract. CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: View abstract. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. Others at risk for Echinacea side effects include individuals with asthma, auto-immune disorders, HIV or tuberculosis and those on immune-suppressing drugs. Phytother.Res 2011;25(4):517-521. 2017 Oct;88(1):67-77. Bensch, K., Tiralongo, J., Schmidt, K., Matthias, A., Bone, K. M., Lehmann, R., and Tiralongo, E. Investigations into the antiadhesive activity of herbal extracts against Campylobacter jejuni. However, there is insufficient evidence on the possible side effects in these contexts. View abstract. Echinacea for treating the common cold: a randomized trial. But high doses of echinacea (8,000 mg and 16,000 mg) taken daily along with other ingredients doesn't seem to improve oxygen intake in athletes. J Paediatr Child Health 2014;50(10):841. Echinacea applied to the skin in a topical form can cause an itchy or red skin rash. Saluk-Juszczak, J., Pawlaczyk, I., Olas, B., Kolodziejczyk, J., Ponczek, M., Nowak, P., Tsirigotis-Woloszczak, M., Wachowicz, B., and Gancarz, R. The effect of polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected medicinal plants of Asteraceae family on the peroxynitrite-induced changes in blood platelet proteins. Strahlenther.Onkol. Echinacea in the prevention of induced rhinovirus colds: a meta-analysis. Efficacy and safety of echinacea in treating upper respiratory tract infections in children: a randomized controlled trial. ZFA.(Stuttgart.) The most common side effect is upset stomach . Echinacea might decrease how quickly the body breaks down caffeine. The body breaks down caffeine to get rid of it. View abstract. In vivo assessment of botanical supplementation on human cytochrome P450 phenotypes: Citrus aurantium, Echinacea purpurea, milk thistle, and saw palmetto. In vitro CYP3A4 metabolism: inhibition by Echinacea purpurea and choice of substrate for the evaluation of herbal inhibition. Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product? Treatment of the common cold with echinacea: a structured review. JAMA 2003;290:2824-30.. View abstract. West J Med 1999;171:198-200. For this reason, liver transplant patients should use extreme caution when using echinacea. Perry NB, van Klink JW, Burgess EJ, et al. View abstract. Arch Intern Med 2004;164:1237-41. This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Common side effects include jitteriness, headache, and fast heartbeat. Arzneimittelforschung 2001;51:563-8.. View abstract. Oral supplementation with a nutraceutical containing Echinacea, methionine and antioxidant/immunostimulating compounds in patients with cutaneous viral warts. Woelkart, K., Koidl, C., Grisold, A., Gangemi, J. D., Turner, R. B., Marth, E., and Bauer, R. Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of alkamides from the roots of Echinacea angustifolia in humans. View abstract. Eur J Intern Med 2008;19:148. [Angina lacunaris. View abstract. Functions as a Laxative. View abstract. Parnham MJ. Also, make sure you do your research. Abdul MI, Jiang X, Williams KM, et al. In this case, apply Mother tincture to the affected skin after mixing with little quantity of water. Martin TD, Green MS, Whitehead MT, Scheett TP, Webster MJ, Hudson GM. Some children participating in a clinical trial of echinacea developed rashes, which may … Bresesti I, Ricci M, Cerritelli F, Veneziano A, Zuccotti G, Lista G. Comparison between two ocular cleansing modalities in a population of newborns admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with clinical signs of conjunctivitis: a randomized controlled trial. View abstract. Echinacea, also known as American coneflower, is a wild herb that grows in the plains of North America. View abstract. But these results were too minor to be deemed significant. J Nutr.Biochem. Treatment of the common cold with unrefined echinacea. View abstract. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem. Press Release: Echinacea herbal products should not be used in children under 12 years old. Echinacea root extracts for the prevention of upper respiratory tract infections: a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial. Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (UK). diphenhydramine, Benadryl, turmeric, chlorpheniramine, echinacea, saw palmetto, milk thistle, Ginkgo Biloba, Banophen. Available at: www.mhra.gov.uk/NewsCentre/Pressreleases/CON180627. Antiviral Res 1998;39(1):55-61.

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