, . Traditional economic theory would suggest that low unemployment will be associated with relatively high wage inflation - and vice versa - as described in the ‘Phillips Curve’ (named after the economist who first identified this relationship in the 1960s). If the rate of inflation was held constant, the economy would tend to converge toward this line. If he expects wages to be rising by 10% a year, he will not let the path of his reservation wage drop as rapidly as he would if he expects no inflation. 4.5, shows that as the unemployment level rises, the rate of inflation falls. We therefore expect wage growth to remain relatively subdued over this period, even if unemployment remains at or below current low levels. U.S. Phillips Curve, 1960â1979. how could i use the phillips curve to explain problems in the EU? google_ad_height = 600; The faster wages rise, the more quickly a searcher will find an acceptable offer, and the lower will be unemployment. In the 1970s, the Phillips curve relation broke down. From VOX post by Peter Hooper, Frederic S. Mishkin, Amir Sufi: âThe apparent flattening of the Phillips curve has led some to claim that it is dead.The column uses data from US states and metropolitan areas to suggest a steeper slope, with non-linearities in tight labour markets. google_color_border = "808080"; On the other hand, if the distribution is falling, then with a given path for the reservation wage, unemployment should be higher than with a stationary distribution. T he Phillips curve is the modern-day version of the unicorn. Now suppose that instead of being stable, the distribution of offers gradually rises, or is between the pink lines. A Phillips curve shows the tradeoff between unemployment and inflation in an economy. PwC refers to the PwC network and/or one or more of its member firms, each of which is a separate legal entity. The economy moves along the Phillips curve in the right-hand chart from point A to point B. Keywords: inï¬ ation, deï¬ ation, hybrid new Keynesian Phillips curve, Poland. The phillips curve relationship broke down in the 1970s with the onset of stagflation, where increasing unemployment was accompanied by rising inflation. So has the Phillips Curve relationship broken down? A number of factors are likely to be at play in these Phillips Curve shifts, but one key factor is the reduction in the bargaining power of workers. The close fit between the estimated curve and the data encouraged many economists, following the lead of Pâ¦ A classical view would reject the long-run trade-off between unemployment, ... Keynesian economics suggests that in difficult times, the confidence of businessmen and consumers can collapse â causing a much larger fall in demand and investment. However, a downward-sloping Phillips curve is a short-term relationship that may shift after a few years. Although in many models it is estimated as a linear relationship in part because of the difficulties that Phillips himself encountered in the original estimation (Phillips, 1958). 13.7). google_ad_type = "text_image"; A number of factors are likely to be at play in these Phillips Curve shifts, but one key factor is the reduction in the bargaining power of workers. e.g. Theories of the natural rate of unemployment represent a rejection of much of the Keynesian message and a return to a faith that prices eventually adjust fully to all disturbances in markets. Please see www.pwc.com/structure for further details. google_ad_client = "pub-3998401874415199"; google_color_border = "808080"; As well as flattening after 1992, the Phillips Curve has also shifted downwards over time as ‘normal’ levels of nominal wage growth have declined[1]. This seems to be what happened in the 1970s. Of course, the prices a company charges are closely connected to the wages it pays. Instead it was the numbers that the world threw out in the next decade that convinced even the true believers that their original interpretation of the Phillips curve was mistaken. The experience of the 1970s led some economists to assert that the long-run Phillips Curve was a vertical line. To explore this further, in our latest UK Economic Outlook report we modelled the relationship between wage growth and unemployment using annual data available from 1971. Suppose instead that we assume that he does become aware. Despite unemployment rate at its lowest level in decades, wage growth has been weak in most of the Question: Which Of The Factors Below Contributed To The Collapse Of The Phillips Curve In The 1970s? google_ad_width = 120; a. economic research proved there was no relationship between inflation and employment For at least the next couple of years, however, the fundamental factors underpinning the flatter, lower Phillips Curve seem likely to remain in place. The Phillips curve is a single-equation economic model, named after William Phillips, describing an inverse relationship between rates of unemployment and corresponding rates of rises in wages that result within an economy. As the short-run Phillips curve shifted upward, positions of high unemployment became compatible with high rates of inflation. Karl Whelan (UCD) The Phillips Curve Spring 2016 8 / 17 Economic Research Proved There Was No Relationship Between Inflation And Unemployment Rates. 19-6 Low Inflation Bends the Phillips Curve Joseph E. Gagnon and Christopher G. Collins April 2019 Abstract The Phillips curve, which traces out a negative relationship between inflation and unemployment, has undergone tremendous changes over more than 100 years. Although in the short-run a government could move the economy to the left of this line by increasing inflation, the long-run result would be the same level of unemployment with higher inflation. In 1975, for example, inflation was 9.3 percent but unemployment was a whopping 8.3 percent. This story leads to an important generalization. Eventually most economists abandoned the idea that there was a long-run, stable tradeoff that policy makers could exploit. Most related general price inflation, rather than wage inflation, to unemployment. What can machine learning add to economics? The graph below shows how the years from 1971 through 1984 plot compared to those of the previous twenty years. Friedman predicted the Phillips curve relationship would collapse. In the Phillips curve plotted in the right-hand figure, the higher price level corresponds with higher inflation, and the higher level of output means that more people are working, so unemployment falls. google_ad_height = 240; The explanation of why the Phillips curve is not a stable trade-off can be built on a theory of search. The Fed has been searching for it for a decade and the Bank of Japan for two decades. Unionisation of the workforce has fallen from 38% in 1990 to 23% in the middle of 2016 (and considerably lower than this in the private sector), while self-employment and part-time and temporary working have increased. Phillips curve's successes and collapse. A fall in output meant a fall in the level of employment or a rise in the level of unemployment and a rise in the price level implied an increase in the rate of inflation. Those economists who had accepted the Phillips curve as a tradeoff were baffled by such results, which the newspapers of the time dubbed stagflation. Stated simply, decreased unemployment, (i.e., increased levels of employment) in an economy will correlate with higher rates of wage rises. Fall of the Phillips Curve Economists were a bit surprised when Edmund Phelps and Milton Friedman published articles in 1967 and 1968, respectively, arguing that there was no stable trade-off between unemployment and inflation, and that the whole Phillips curve was based on fooling people. the Phillips curve. The Phillips curve has been a central topic in macroeconomics since the 1950s and its successes and failures have been a major element in the evolution over time of the discipline. The tradeoff between unemployment and inflation appeared to break down during the 1970s as the Phillips Curve shifted out to the right. And in the 1960s, the US dollar was anchoredâalbeit very tenuouslyâto gold â¦ The advent of stagflation and the breakdown of the Phillips curve resulted in the development the second and â¦ With this distribution and a path for the reservation wage, there will be some average amount of time spent in search and thus as unemployed. i have assignment to present about phillip curve. google_color_text = "000000"; Nevertheless, this reduced-form evidence should be considered with caution, since it is plagued by the Lucas critique, as â¦ [1] Similar shifts in the Phillips Curve were found in a recent analysis by Andrew Haldane, chief economist at the Bank of England: http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/publications/Pages/speeches/2017/984.aspx, Join today to receive your monthly round up straight to your inbox. These changes reduce wage bargaining power as firms are able to negotiate with individuals rather than groups, while the increased flexibility of modern work may induce people back into the workforce, restricting upward pressure on wages. google_alternate_color = "FFFFCC"; Depending on how UK migration policy evolves, this factor may become somewhat less important after Brexit. There will be a trade-off, but it depends on expectations of inflation remaining constant. After 1945, fiscal demand management became the general tool for managing the trade cycle. But they fail to note that at least three of those versions (including the version presented by Phillips himself) had already been spelled out long before Phillips. Olay Regenerist Retinol 24 Night Serum Retinol Percentage, Honey Bee Hive Rug Hooking Patterns And Supplies, Zemaitis Guitars For Sale Uk, Work Measurement Unit, Ikea Bunk Bed Nl, Apache Word For Beautiful, How To Remove Blackheads On Nose Naturally, Aquafaba Whiskey Sour, Can You Eat Cinnamon Sticks, Cottages For Sale In Michigan By Owner, Traeger Longhorn Steer, " /> , . Traditional economic theory would suggest that low unemployment will be associated with relatively high wage inflation - and vice versa - as described in the ‘Phillips Curve’ (named after the economist who first identified this relationship in the 1960s). If the rate of inflation was held constant, the economy would tend to converge toward this line. If he expects wages to be rising by 10% a year, he will not let the path of his reservation wage drop as rapidly as he would if he expects no inflation. 4.5, shows that as the unemployment level rises, the rate of inflation falls. We therefore expect wage growth to remain relatively subdued over this period, even if unemployment remains at or below current low levels. U.S. Phillips Curve, 1960â1979. how could i use the phillips curve to explain problems in the EU? google_ad_height = 600; The faster wages rise, the more quickly a searcher will find an acceptable offer, and the lower will be unemployment. In the 1970s, the Phillips curve relation broke down. From VOX post by Peter Hooper, Frederic S. Mishkin, Amir Sufi: âThe apparent flattening of the Phillips curve has led some to claim that it is dead.The column uses data from US states and metropolitan areas to suggest a steeper slope, with non-linearities in tight labour markets. google_color_border = "808080"; On the other hand, if the distribution is falling, then with a given path for the reservation wage, unemployment should be higher than with a stationary distribution. T he Phillips curve is the modern-day version of the unicorn. Now suppose that instead of being stable, the distribution of offers gradually rises, or is between the pink lines. A Phillips curve shows the tradeoff between unemployment and inflation in an economy. PwC refers to the PwC network and/or one or more of its member firms, each of which is a separate legal entity. The economy moves along the Phillips curve in the right-hand chart from point A to point B. Keywords: inï¬ ation, deï¬ ation, hybrid new Keynesian Phillips curve, Poland. The phillips curve relationship broke down in the 1970s with the onset of stagflation, where increasing unemployment was accompanied by rising inflation. So has the Phillips Curve relationship broken down? A number of factors are likely to be at play in these Phillips Curve shifts, but one key factor is the reduction in the bargaining power of workers. The close fit between the estimated curve and the data encouraged many economists, following the lead of Pâ¦ A classical view would reject the long-run trade-off between unemployment, ... Keynesian economics suggests that in difficult times, the confidence of businessmen and consumers can collapse â causing a much larger fall in demand and investment. However, a downward-sloping Phillips curve is a short-term relationship that may shift after a few years. Although in many models it is estimated as a linear relationship in part because of the difficulties that Phillips himself encountered in the original estimation (Phillips, 1958). 13.7). google_ad_type = "text_image"; A number of factors are likely to be at play in these Phillips Curve shifts, but one key factor is the reduction in the bargaining power of workers. e.g. Theories of the natural rate of unemployment represent a rejection of much of the Keynesian message and a return to a faith that prices eventually adjust fully to all disturbances in markets. Please see www.pwc.com/structure for further details. google_ad_client = "pub-3998401874415199"; google_color_border = "808080"; As well as flattening after 1992, the Phillips Curve has also shifted downwards over time as ‘normal’ levels of nominal wage growth have declined[1]. This seems to be what happened in the 1970s. Of course, the prices a company charges are closely connected to the wages it pays. Instead it was the numbers that the world threw out in the next decade that convinced even the true believers that their original interpretation of the Phillips curve was mistaken. The experience of the 1970s led some economists to assert that the long-run Phillips Curve was a vertical line. To explore this further, in our latest UK Economic Outlook report we modelled the relationship between wage growth and unemployment using annual data available from 1971. Suppose instead that we assume that he does become aware. Despite unemployment rate at its lowest level in decades, wage growth has been weak in most of the Question: Which Of The Factors Below Contributed To The Collapse Of The Phillips Curve In The 1970s? google_ad_width = 120; a. economic research proved there was no relationship between inflation and employment For at least the next couple of years, however, the fundamental factors underpinning the flatter, lower Phillips Curve seem likely to remain in place. The Phillips curve is a single-equation economic model, named after William Phillips, describing an inverse relationship between rates of unemployment and corresponding rates of rises in wages that result within an economy. As the short-run Phillips curve shifted upward, positions of high unemployment became compatible with high rates of inflation. Karl Whelan (UCD) The Phillips Curve Spring 2016 8 / 17 Economic Research Proved There Was No Relationship Between Inflation And Unemployment Rates. 19-6 Low Inflation Bends the Phillips Curve Joseph E. Gagnon and Christopher G. Collins April 2019 Abstract The Phillips curve, which traces out a negative relationship between inflation and unemployment, has undergone tremendous changes over more than 100 years. Although in the short-run a government could move the economy to the left of this line by increasing inflation, the long-run result would be the same level of unemployment with higher inflation. In 1975, for example, inflation was 9.3 percent but unemployment was a whopping 8.3 percent. This story leads to an important generalization. Eventually most economists abandoned the idea that there was a long-run, stable tradeoff that policy makers could exploit. Most related general price inflation, rather than wage inflation, to unemployment. What can machine learning add to economics? The graph below shows how the years from 1971 through 1984 plot compared to those of the previous twenty years. Friedman predicted the Phillips curve relationship would collapse. In the Phillips curve plotted in the right-hand figure, the higher price level corresponds with higher inflation, and the higher level of output means that more people are working, so unemployment falls. google_ad_height = 240; The explanation of why the Phillips curve is not a stable trade-off can be built on a theory of search. The Fed has been searching for it for a decade and the Bank of Japan for two decades. Unionisation of the workforce has fallen from 38% in 1990 to 23% in the middle of 2016 (and considerably lower than this in the private sector), while self-employment and part-time and temporary working have increased. Phillips curve's successes and collapse. A fall in output meant a fall in the level of employment or a rise in the level of unemployment and a rise in the price level implied an increase in the rate of inflation. Those economists who had accepted the Phillips curve as a tradeoff were baffled by such results, which the newspapers of the time dubbed stagflation. Stated simply, decreased unemployment, (i.e., increased levels of employment) in an economy will correlate with higher rates of wage rises. Fall of the Phillips Curve Economists were a bit surprised when Edmund Phelps and Milton Friedman published articles in 1967 and 1968, respectively, arguing that there was no stable trade-off between unemployment and inflation, and that the whole Phillips curve was based on fooling people. the Phillips curve. The Phillips curve has been a central topic in macroeconomics since the 1950s and its successes and failures have been a major element in the evolution over time of the discipline. The tradeoff between unemployment and inflation appeared to break down during the 1970s as the Phillips Curve shifted out to the right. And in the 1960s, the US dollar was anchoredâalbeit very tenuouslyâto gold â¦ The advent of stagflation and the breakdown of the Phillips curve resulted in the development the second and â¦ With this distribution and a path for the reservation wage, there will be some average amount of time spent in search and thus as unemployed. i have assignment to present about phillip curve. google_color_text = "000000"; Nevertheless, this reduced-form evidence should be considered with caution, since it is plagued by the Lucas critique, as â¦ [1] Similar shifts in the Phillips Curve were found in a recent analysis by Andrew Haldane, chief economist at the Bank of England: http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/publications/Pages/speeches/2017/984.aspx, Join today to receive your monthly round up straight to your inbox. These changes reduce wage bargaining power as firms are able to negotiate with individuals rather than groups, while the increased flexibility of modern work may induce people back into the workforce, restricting upward pressure on wages. google_alternate_color = "FFFFCC"; Depending on how UK migration policy evolves, this factor may become somewhat less important after Brexit. There will be a trade-off, but it depends on expectations of inflation remaining constant. After 1945, fiscal demand management became the general tool for managing the trade cycle. But they fail to note that at least three of those versions (including the version presented by Phillips himself) had already been spelled out long before Phillips. Olay Regenerist Retinol 24 Night Serum Retinol Percentage, Honey Bee Hive Rug Hooking Patterns And Supplies, Zemaitis Guitars For Sale Uk, Work Measurement Unit, Ikea Bunk Bed Nl, Apache Word For Beautiful, How To Remove Blackheads On Nose Naturally, Aquafaba Whiskey Sour, Can You Eat Cinnamon Sticks, Cottages For Sale In Michigan By Owner, Traeger Longhorn Steer, " />

## NOTÍCIAS E EVENTOS

### nexgrill vs char broil

As inflation continued to rise, people began to expect higher and higher rates of inflation. Phillips curve, graphic representation of the economic relationship between the rate of unemployment (or the rate of change of unemployment) and the rate of change of money wages. Weaker migration from the EU could put further pressure on the UK labour market, http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/publications/Pages/speeches/2017/984.aspx. Thus both unemployment and inflation increase at the same time. Assume: Initially, the economy is in equilibrium with stable prices and unemployment at NRU (U *) (Fig. Unionisation of the workforce has fallen from 38% in 1990 to 23% in the middle of 2016 (and considerably lower than this in the private sector), while self-employment and part-time and temporary working have increased. Economists soon estimated Phillips curves for most developed economies. google_ad_client = "pub-3998401874415199"; When the economy cooled and joblessness rose, inflation declined. Increased migration to the UK from other EU countries since 2004 may also have played some role here in dampening wage growth in response to increased labour demand as it has made labour supply more elastic. The above paragraph gives a story that will generate a Phillips curve. JEL Classiï¬ cation: E31, E37 INTRODUCTION Before the collapse of the Lehman Brothers, many advanced and emerging The Phillips curve, drawn in Fig. google_ui_features = "rc:0"; The Phillips Curve shows that wages and prices adjust slowly to changes in AD due to imperfections in the labour market. With a fixed path for the reservation wage, the searcher will, on the average, find an acceptable offer more quickly. , . Traditional economic theory would suggest that low unemployment will be associated with relatively high wage inflation - and vice versa - as described in the ‘Phillips Curve’ (named after the economist who first identified this relationship in the 1960s). If the rate of inflation was held constant, the economy would tend to converge toward this line. If he expects wages to be rising by 10% a year, he will not let the path of his reservation wage drop as rapidly as he would if he expects no inflation. 4.5, shows that as the unemployment level rises, the rate of inflation falls. We therefore expect wage growth to remain relatively subdued over this period, even if unemployment remains at or below current low levels. U.S. Phillips Curve, 1960â1979. how could i use the phillips curve to explain problems in the EU? google_ad_height = 600; The faster wages rise, the more quickly a searcher will find an acceptable offer, and the lower will be unemployment. In the 1970s, the Phillips curve relation broke down. From VOX post by Peter Hooper, Frederic S. Mishkin, Amir Sufi: âThe apparent flattening of the Phillips curve has led some to claim that it is dead.The column uses data from US states and metropolitan areas to suggest a steeper slope, with non-linearities in tight labour markets. google_color_border = "808080"; On the other hand, if the distribution is falling, then with a given path for the reservation wage, unemployment should be higher than with a stationary distribution. T he Phillips curve is the modern-day version of the unicorn. Now suppose that instead of being stable, the distribution of offers gradually rises, or is between the pink lines. A Phillips curve shows the tradeoff between unemployment and inflation in an economy. PwC refers to the PwC network and/or one or more of its member firms, each of which is a separate legal entity. The economy moves along the Phillips curve in the right-hand chart from point A to point B. Keywords: inï¬ ation, deï¬ ation, hybrid new Keynesian Phillips curve, Poland. The phillips curve relationship broke down in the 1970s with the onset of stagflation, where increasing unemployment was accompanied by rising inflation. So has the Phillips Curve relationship broken down? A number of factors are likely to be at play in these Phillips Curve shifts, but one key factor is the reduction in the bargaining power of workers. The close fit between the estimated curve and the data encouraged many economists, following the lead of Pâ¦ A classical view would reject the long-run trade-off between unemployment, ... Keynesian economics suggests that in difficult times, the confidence of businessmen and consumers can collapse â causing a much larger fall in demand and investment. However, a downward-sloping Phillips curve is a short-term relationship that may shift after a few years. Although in many models it is estimated as a linear relationship in part because of the difficulties that Phillips himself encountered in the original estimation (Phillips, 1958). 13.7). google_ad_type = "text_image"; A number of factors are likely to be at play in these Phillips Curve shifts, but one key factor is the reduction in the bargaining power of workers. e.g. Theories of the natural rate of unemployment represent a rejection of much of the Keynesian message and a return to a faith that prices eventually adjust fully to all disturbances in markets. Please see www.pwc.com/structure for further details. google_ad_client = "pub-3998401874415199"; google_color_border = "808080"; As well as flattening after 1992, the Phillips Curve has also shifted downwards over time as ‘normal’ levels of nominal wage growth have declined[1]. This seems to be what happened in the 1970s. Of course, the prices a company charges are closely connected to the wages it pays. Instead it was the numbers that the world threw out in the next decade that convinced even the true believers that their original interpretation of the Phillips curve was mistaken. The experience of the 1970s led some economists to assert that the long-run Phillips Curve was a vertical line. To explore this further, in our latest UK Economic Outlook report we modelled the relationship between wage growth and unemployment using annual data available from 1971. Suppose instead that we assume that he does become aware. Despite unemployment rate at its lowest level in decades, wage growth has been weak in most of the Question: Which Of The Factors Below Contributed To The Collapse Of The Phillips Curve In The 1970s? google_ad_width = 120; a. economic research proved there was no relationship between inflation and employment For at least the next couple of years, however, the fundamental factors underpinning the flatter, lower Phillips Curve seem likely to remain in place. The Phillips curve is a single-equation economic model, named after William Phillips, describing an inverse relationship between rates of unemployment and corresponding rates of rises in wages that result within an economy. As the short-run Phillips curve shifted upward, positions of high unemployment became compatible with high rates of inflation. Karl Whelan (UCD) The Phillips Curve Spring 2016 8 / 17 Economic Research Proved There Was No Relationship Between Inflation And Unemployment Rates. 19-6 Low Inflation Bends the Phillips Curve Joseph E. Gagnon and Christopher G. Collins April 2019 Abstract The Phillips curve, which traces out a negative relationship between inflation and unemployment, has undergone tremendous changes over more than 100 years. Although in the short-run a government could move the economy to the left of this line by increasing inflation, the long-run result would be the same level of unemployment with higher inflation. In 1975, for example, inflation was 9.3 percent but unemployment was a whopping 8.3 percent. This story leads to an important generalization. Eventually most economists abandoned the idea that there was a long-run, stable tradeoff that policy makers could exploit. Most related general price inflation, rather than wage inflation, to unemployment. What can machine learning add to economics? The graph below shows how the years from 1971 through 1984 plot compared to those of the previous twenty years. Friedman predicted the Phillips curve relationship would collapse. In the Phillips curve plotted in the right-hand figure, the higher price level corresponds with higher inflation, and the higher level of output means that more people are working, so unemployment falls. google_ad_height = 240; The explanation of why the Phillips curve is not a stable trade-off can be built on a theory of search. The Fed has been searching for it for a decade and the Bank of Japan for two decades. Unionisation of the workforce has fallen from 38% in 1990 to 23% in the middle of 2016 (and considerably lower than this in the private sector), while self-employment and part-time and temporary working have increased. Phillips curve's successes and collapse. A fall in output meant a fall in the level of employment or a rise in the level of unemployment and a rise in the price level implied an increase in the rate of inflation. Those economists who had accepted the Phillips curve as a tradeoff were baffled by such results, which the newspapers of the time dubbed stagflation. Stated simply, decreased unemployment, (i.e., increased levels of employment) in an economy will correlate with higher rates of wage rises. Fall of the Phillips Curve Economists were a bit surprised when Edmund Phelps and Milton Friedman published articles in 1967 and 1968, respectively, arguing that there was no stable trade-off between unemployment and inflation, and that the whole Phillips curve was based on fooling people. the Phillips curve. The Phillips curve has been a central topic in macroeconomics since the 1950s and its successes and failures have been a major element in the evolution over time of the discipline. The tradeoff between unemployment and inflation appeared to break down during the 1970s as the Phillips Curve shifted out to the right. And in the 1960s, the US dollar was anchoredâalbeit very tenuouslyâto gold â¦ The advent of stagflation and the breakdown of the Phillips curve resulted in the development the second and â¦ With this distribution and a path for the reservation wage, there will be some average amount of time spent in search and thus as unemployed. i have assignment to present about phillip curve. google_color_text = "000000"; Nevertheless, this reduced-form evidence should be considered with caution, since it is plagued by the Lucas critique, as â¦ [1] Similar shifts in the Phillips Curve were found in a recent analysis by Andrew Haldane, chief economist at the Bank of England: http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/publications/Pages/speeches/2017/984.aspx, Join today to receive your monthly round up straight to your inbox. These changes reduce wage bargaining power as firms are able to negotiate with individuals rather than groups, while the increased flexibility of modern work may induce people back into the workforce, restricting upward pressure on wages. google_alternate_color = "FFFFCC"; Depending on how UK migration policy evolves, this factor may become somewhat less important after Brexit. There will be a trade-off, but it depends on expectations of inflation remaining constant. After 1945, fiscal demand management became the general tool for managing the trade cycle. But they fail to note that at least three of those versions (including the version presented by Phillips himself) had already been spelled out long before Phillips.

view all posts