Outcrossing between unrelated individuals, including dogs of different breeds, results in the beneficial masking of deleterious recessive mutations in progeny.  Other types of working dogs include search and rescue dogs, detection dogs trained to detect illicit drugs or chemical weapons; guard dogs; dogs who assist fishermen with the use of nets; and dogs that pull loads. Male French Bulldogs, for instance, are incapable of mounting the female. , Neutering refers to the sterilization of animals, usually by removing the male's testicles or the female's ovaries and uterus, to eliminate the ability to procreate and reduce sex drive. The dog is one of the two most ubiquitous and most popular domestic animals in the world (the cat is the other). No matter what their origins, all canids have certain common characteristics.  For instance, dogs would have improved sanitation by cleaning up food scraps. Notable exceptions once included: Dogs were introduced to Antarctica as sled dogs but were later outlawed by international agreement due to the possible risk of spreading infections.  Jewish law requires Jews to feed dogs (and other animals that they own) before themselves and make arrangements for feeding them before obtaining them.  Stories of dogs guarding the gates of the underworld recur throughout Indo-European mythologies and may originate from Proto-Indo-European religion. The term comes from rhyming slang in which "dog" is short for "dog and bone," which rhymes with "phone." , The cohabitation of dogs and humans likely improved the chances of survival for early human groups. Hunting scenes were popular in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. They have been bred by humans for a long time, and were the first animals ever to be domesticated. Human beings have played a major role in creating dogs that fulfill distinct societal needs. The typical lifespan of dogs varies widely among breeds, but for most, the median longevity, the age at which half the dogs in a population have died, and half are still alive, ranges from 10 to 13 years. brevipilis Gmelin, 1792, The domestic dog: Its evolution, behaviour and interactions with people. Dogs can be exposed to the substance by scavenging through garbage bins or ashtrays and eating cigars and cigarettes.  So-called primitive dogs such as dingoes and Basenjis retain the yearly estrus cycle. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login).  Dogs vary widely in shape, size, and colors. leporarius C. E. H. Smith, 1839, Also, more like the cat, the dog requires arginine to maintain its nitrogen balance. Some breeds of dogs are prone to specific genetic ailments such as elbow and hip dysplasia, blindness, deafness, pulmonic stenosis, cleft palate, and trick knees. turcicus Gmelin, 1792, Everything and Anything Dog. variegatus Gmelin, 1792, Sources vary on which of these are considered the most significant toxic item.  Animal-assisted intervention research has shown that animal-assisted therapy with a dog can increase social behaviors, such as smiling and laughing, among people with Alzheimer's disease.  Also, like humans, some dog breeds produce amylase in their saliva. firstname.lastname@example.org That way, they do not have undesired puppies that may later be euthanized.. Acta Biologica et Medica Germanica 28:957–962. Studies of two dogs suggest that dogs can learn by inference and have advanced memory skills. Wozencraft included hallstromi – the New Guinea singing dog – as a taxonomic synonym for the dingo. Because of dogs' overpopulation in some countries, many animal control agencies, such as the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA), advise that dogs not intended for further breeding should be neutered. mastinus Linnaeus, 1758, Domestic dogs consider dog crates, to be their den. " Therefore, Sunni Malaki and Hanafi jurists permit the trade of and keeping of dogs as pets.. In: Gompper, M.E. The timing and location of dog domestication is less clear and has been a matter of significant debate, but there is strong genetic evidence that the first domestication events occurred somewhere in Central Asia before 15,000 years ago. In the United States, about 10,000 cases of Toxocara infection are reported in humans each year, and almost 14% of the U.S. population is infected.
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