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ancient mediterranean civilizations timeline

338 BC Charlemagne undertook a long war in which he defeated and conquered the Saxons and incorporated their territories into the French Empire. The Abbasids, descendants of Abbas, uncle of Muhammad, were established with the power of the Caliphate and moved the capital from Damascus (Syria) to Baghdad (Iraq). The Antonios dynasty: their first five emperors were known as the Dynasty of the Five Good Emperors because all of them were wise and lead Rome well. They get their name from the village of Mycenae in Peloponnese. Tres Zapotes. The Arabs conquered what is currently Afghanistan. She was assimilated into other cultures with different names like the Greek goddess Aphrodite and the Roman god Venus and the Egyptian god Isis. Solomon brought Israel to match the power of the other great kingdoms of its time. 1760 BC The Carthaginians were allied with the Etruscans against the Greeks. 5500 BC – 1000 BC 1500-500 BC: Indian kingdom age ca. 1200-1100 BC Its influence has been felt throughout centuries of history and many countries still have ample evidence in the form of monuments and buildings which date back to that period. 622 AD They successfully reunified China after the period of the three kingdoms. A group of Canaanite men, of semitic race and language and coming from the Persian or Arabic gulf established themselves on the northern coasts of Lebanese Syria. A series of three wars between the two main powers of the Mediterranean at the time: Rome and Carthage. A cultural hearth is a place where a culture first developed. 1200 AD – 1510 AD The Greeks won against the Persians, who fought with the help of the Phoenician Navy. Culture: Egyptian (Old Kingdom) Location: Giza, Egypt The man is the King Menkaura, while the woman beside him is likely the queen (but researchers also hypothesize that she could be the king's mother, or even the goddess Hathor). Ancient Africa provided the world with some of the greatest empires and civilizations in history. Y1 - 2011. Chemical analysis of the dated tree-ring sequence identifies a chemical change in their growth environment around 1560 BC, which while requiring further substantiation, may be evidence of the Thera eruption. For this period, three chronologies are traditionally handled differently, known as “high”, “middle”, and “low”. First Intermediate Period: Literature flourished in this period. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Due to their strategic position, unifying Europe and Asia and lying between 3 seas, Turkey has been a historic mixing of western and eastern cultures and civilizations. Jerusalem becomes the capital of the reign of David. 13000 BC 30 BC – 640 AD With the victory of Octavius against Mark Antony, the Republic annexed the great riches of Egypt. This coincides roughly with the traditional date of the founding of Rome in 753 BC and the beginning of the history of Rome. The Great Khan Ogodei entered a conflict with the Song Dynasty. This is usually symbolized by the closing of the Academy of Athens by Justinian I, as well as the prohibition of all religions other than Christianity.

The Persian Empire is a series of imperial dynasties centered in Persia/Iran since the 6th century BC in the Achaemenid era, to the 20th century AD in the Qajar era. Tiberius, Caligula, and Nero were especially despotic, they were also driven by excessive madness that put to the test the strength of the consolidated system from Octavius’s wise management. First Roman triumvirate: Unofficial political alliance formed by Gnaeus Pompey Magnus, Gaius Julius Caesar, and Marcus Crassus Licino, who abolished the aristocratic constitution. 826 AD – 961 AD Other important cities were Nineveh, Harran, Calakh, Dur Sharrukin (now called Khorsabad). Dark Age: Signs of geometric designs on pottery. In addition to the aristocrats and plebeians, they added the slave class. During this period, trade and interchange with the outside world was so strong that the mythology and architecture of Hindis and Buddhists expanded through Borneo, Cambodia, Indonesia, and Thailand. As legend has it, Rome was founded in 753 B.C. Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths, drafted the first collection of laws. Agriculture, industry, and trade flourished. The kings of this dynasty practiced the art of prophecy. 265-420 AD Venice possessed Crete until the middle of the XVII century. T1 - Ancient Mediterranean Civilizations. 395 AD The information codified in the documents revealed that they had already inhabited a small island since 1274 AD. A look at Ancient Civilizations of the Mycenaeans and Phoenicians. The major events in ancient history listed in the table below are those happenings in the world that led to or gravely impacted the rise and decline of the great Mediterranean civilizations of Greece and Rome. 736 AD Copan was the scientific center of the Mayan world, where astronomy was perfected to the point of being able to determine the length of the tropical year, create tablets of eclipses, and create a formula to adjust the calendar, even more exact than is used today. The war ended 45 years later with complete occupation of the Chinese territory. The followers of Islam are called Muslims (All of those who accept the will of a god). Deioces successfully unified the Median empire as a measure to protect against the Assyrians. 650 AD The Gupta empire was one of the largest political and military empires in Indian history. Rulers & Politics

The Sumerians, intelligent and active, made the country arable, building canals and dikes and drying the marshes. 1204 AD However, their art had an influence even on the great Incan Civilization. This period is characterized by the marked decline of the Olmecans and the reflection of the culture’s influence in tow other cultures: the Teotihuacanans and the Mayans. The small island was overgrown with tulares, reeds, and rich aquatic diversity that allowed for subsistence as well as strategic military positions, even then, their first years would still be dangerous. 320 AD – 927 AD There were no relations between distant provinces. This lead to the disappearance of the Carthaginian state and the destruction of the city of Carthage. Fundraiser: Mesopotamia Teaching Materials. 200 BC – 200 AD They were called Hebrews before the conquest of the land of Canaan and Israelites afterwards. The prophet dies at the age of 63 in the city of Medina. 1700 BC – 1100 BC TY - BOOK. The king of Macedonia was defeated and forced to sign a peace treaty that abandoned their claims on Greece. 12th Century – 4th century BC They historically occupied the south part of Oaxaca and the isthmus of Tehuantepec (Mexico). our … Centered between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, the region in ancient times was home to several civilizations, including the Sumerians, Babylonians, Assyrians, and Persians. Constantine recognized the Bulgarian Empire’s existence after suffering a disastrous defeat while trying to move them out of the Balcans. Perseus won and offered the Romans a peace treaty that was rejected. 146 BC 570 AD The Persians belonged to Iranian groups that had been established centuries before in the plateau of Iran. Another important road united the capitals of Persis, Persepolis, and Pasargadae. Jerusalem is captured by the great Roman general Pompeo. Nature & Climate Hammurabi started his kingdom. The economy was based in the cultivation of wheat, vines, olives, and livestock. Its influence has been felt throughout centuries of history and many countries still have ample evidence in the form of monuments and buildings which date back to that period. The Zapotecans completely abandon Monte Alban after they break relations with Teotihuacan. The kings of Gupta established an effective administrative system and a strong central power allowing local autonomy in times of peace. The artists created sculptures in stretched positions with a dreamlike “archaic smile”. The Numidians were one of the first natives that traded with the Carthaginian colonies. Tyre is sieged by Alexander the Great. This culture developed in Mesoamerica during the Middle Preclassic Period. 628 AD Categories: 701 BC The agricultural base of the economy, the sedentarism, the use of the planting pipe, the cultivation of corn and nixtamalization, the ball game, the use of two calendars (260-day ritual calendar and 365-day civil calendar), the human sacrifices as part of religious expression, the number system to base 20, the lithic technology, and the absence of metallurgy, amongst others are characteristic features of the Mesoamerican Culture. The Roman Senate, controlled by Octavius, declared that Mark Antony was not useful for the second triumvirate and declared war with Cleopatra. The Persian empire conquered the entire area. In this system, at least in the first tetrarch, there wasn’t a territorial division that perfectly delineated the powers of each tetrarch. 29 BC The Mongolian conquest of China ended. 1227 AD After leaving expelled from Chapultepec by the Altepetl of Azcapotzalco, Xaltocan, Culhuacan, and Xochimilco, they settled in Tizapan, in the domain of Culhuacan, which they left due to the harsh conditions and a confrontation with the Culhuacans, heading towards the region of Texcoco before choosing a small island. The original Greek name was Romania or Basileia Romanion : Roman Empire, direct translation of the name in Latin, Imperium Romanorum. Darius II collaborated with Sparta in the Peloponnesian Wars and defeated Athens. Their culture had a powerful influence over the Roman Empire, who disseminated into many European territories. Greece falls again during the Peloponnesian wars were Sparta defeated Athens. Left to drown in a basket on the Tiber by a king of nearby Alba Longa and rescued by a she-wolf, the twins lived to defeat that king and found their own city on the river’s banks in 753 B.C. 1279 AD The Recent Helladic Period I: The cultural characteristics of the Mycenaean civilization were built in this period. 750 BC – 500 BC The difference between these chronologies is owed to the ambiguity in the sources, mainly the Venus Tablet. The V Dynasty marked the ascent of the high priest. The name Phoenicia comes from the Greeks. It was between Rome and King Perseus of Macedonia. New Kingdom: In the outward expansion arrived at the Euphrates (Asia) as well as to Nubia (Africa). Welcome to the Ancient Cities Timeline!. The existence of written documents from long ago has allowed the development in China of precise historiographical tradition that offers a continuous narration from the first dynasties to the contemporary age.2100-1600 BCThe First Chinese Dynasty, Xia, was a slavery-based society that allowed private property. The historical territory of the Mixtecans is the area known today as Mixteca, divided between the Mexican states of Puebla, Oaxaca, and Guerrero. He also started a siege on Europe with an overwhelming drive. Mythical date in which Manco Capac and Mama Ocllo occupied the Cuzco Valley and they became the first Incans. Israel is won over by the Assyrians. 698 AD – 705 AD This is the era that the circular pyramid of Cuicuilco, the central square of Monte Alban, and the pyramid of the moon in Teotihuacan are estimated to have been built. From around the 6th century BC The Romans ruled over the biggest chunk of land in that era – all the present day counties surrounding the modern day Mediterranean sea were a part of ancient Rome. They invaded Xochimilco. Several major Phoenician cities were built on the coastline of the Mediterranean. The prophet dies and the new leaders take the title Caliphate that means “successor”. The Medes were recognized generally as an important part of the Seleucid and Persian Empire. The Tarasca culture began. The Phoenicians establish themselves on the coasts of Syria and Libya, coming from Arabia in the 4th century BC. The format is the era or dates in the far left column (column #1), followed by a summary of the period called the Overview which may be further divided by region horizontally (column #2), followed by the main geographic area ( the Mediterranean, what we call the Middle East today, but in the context of ancient history is usually called the Ancient Near East (A.N.E. The oldest registered Olmec Center is San Lorenzo, located in the basin of the Coatzacoalcos River, in the State of Veracruz. 200 BC The Carthaginian armada was also defeated. 37 BC – 4 AD It began as a consequence of the rapprochement between Phillip V of Macedonia and Hannibal. They reached their greatest extension with Trajan, ranging from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the shores of the Caspian sea, Red sea, and Persian Gulf in the east and from the Sahara Desert in the south to the coasts of the Rhine and Danube rivers and the frontiers of Caledonia (Ancient Scotland) in the north. A Muslim attack devastated the city reducing it to ashes and massacring all of its inhabitants Since then, it remained dominated by Islam. 63 BC 578 BC – 535 BC Charlemagne reestablished the balance in power between emperor and the pope. Nebuchadnezzar became the King of Babylonia. Cyrus conquered Babylonia and presented himself as the savior of the conquered nations. 500 BC – 323 BC Exact dating of this eruption is important because it provides a prominent marker horizon through which ancient timelines of the East Mediterranean, Egypt, and the Levant can be synchronized. Located in North Africa, around modern-day Morocco, Algeria, and Libya. The Mixtecans shared numerous cultural features with their neighbors, the Zapotecans. 200 AD The empire was divided into three large states. Period: 753 B.C. The first agricultural settlements in the region appeared. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2020) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. The growth of the middle class created a new conception of belief that was reflected in the appearance of the so-called Texts of the Sarcophagi. In Africa, she bought a piece of land on the cast from the Libyan king Jarbas where she founded Carthage, a city that very shortly after would inherit the maritime and trade supremacy of the Phoenician world. They were also the only ones that were able to work with bronze, as it was one of their secret trades. 221 BC 1054 AD Under mandate from Genghis Khan, all citizens (always, even when they were nomads) and the religious people were considered equal by the Mongolian law, meanwhile the overweight population and the Chinese especially were discriminated against. The Turks take control of modern-day Iran and Iraq. This was in practice since 509 BC when the monarchy was put to an end with the expulsion of the last king, Lucio Tarquino the arrogant, until 27 AD, the date in which Rome became an empire. They also promoted the interchange of merchants through the silk route. } Unstable peace was negotiated that allowed Rome to concentrate its energy on defeated Carthage. Darius founded Persepolis. They worshiped their ancestors, practicing human sacrifice and live burial of slaves with their masters. The Chibchan village, was more civilized than those occupying the Nuevo Reino de Granada (Colombia). Ancient Greek art and culture have become cornerstones of modern western society. The very first cities on earth sprang up on the Euphrates and Tigris river valleys, valleys that were fertile and abundant, fed by rivers that were easily navigated, enabling the spread of people, goods and ideas. Cyrus “The Great” conquered the kingdom of Lidia (modern-day Turkish province) in Asia Minor. The Mixtecans were organized in small city-states that rarely exceeded 12 thousand people. They provoked a wave of migration for people who wanted to leave before the Huns arrived. The Second Punic War begins. Select: all / none. The First Chinese Dynasty, Xia, was a slavery-based society that allowed private property. 1250 AD Established by Genghis Khan, the empire came to occupy and maximum extension of some 33 million square kilometers and more than 100 million inhabitants, including some of the most advanced and populated nations of the time, like China, Iraq, Iran, and countries of Central Asia and Asia Minor. The device, built from wood, wire, and grains of corn, is also known as the “Aztecan computer”. Immediately after, he attacked the provinces of Northern China and Eastern Persia and penetrated Southern Russia and the Caucasus. 10th century He later started a political expansion. to its conquest by Alexander the Great in 332 B.C.—ancient Egypt was the preeminent civilization in the Mediterranean world. 1200 BC 425 900 BC – 400 BC 1900 BC 540 BC Carthage falls. Crisis of the 3rd century. 1229 AD- 1241 AD During the wars in Western China, Genghis Khan died from illness. 1100 AD What they asked for most was a long earthly life to avoid the torments of the afterlife. 500 BC 1500 BC The aftermath of the Peloponnesian war a. very messy, with battles between Greek cities, especially Sparta, and Persians who sometimes back Greek cities against other Greek cities. 1204 AD – 1261 AD 2500-1500 BC: Vedic age ca. With the expansion from the invaders, various cities were founded on the southern coast of Canaan: Gaza, Asdod, Ecrón, Ascalón and Gat. Han Dynasty. The prophet Zarathustra is born. A cultural hearth is a place where a culture first developed. The oldest beginnings of the Olmecans. 600 BC – 889 AD The Hyksos conquered Egypt, causing the fall of the Middle Period. Ancient Civilization Timeline: The 16 Oldest Cultures Acces PDF Ancient Mediterranean Civilizations From Prehistory Ancient Mediterranean Civilizations From Prehistory Kobo Reading App: This is another nice e-reader app that's available for Windows Phone, BlackBerry, Android, iPhone, iPad, and Windows and Mac computers. According to ancient classical authors, the Phoenicians were a people who occupied the coast of the Levant (eastern Mediterranean). 1813 BC – 1780 BC 629 AD Anatolia, that contains the greater part of modern-day Turkey, is one of the oldest and continuously inhabited regions in the world. King David (1004 – 965 BC) changed Israel into an important power in the region through his successful military expeditions, seeing to the final defeat of the Philistines. 3300 BC Charlemagne was the battle and ordered the slaughter of thousands of pagan Saxon prisoners. Alexander, son of Phillip II, finished his father’s last project, conquer the Persian Empire. 235 AD – 284 AD The warrior Temudjin united all the Mongolian tribes under his command when he was declared Great Khan, with the name Genghis Khan. In Iraq, Bactrian camels and dromedary camels are domesticated. The main cause was the domination of commercial interests in the Mediterranean Sea. 221-206 BC 2100-1600 BC The history of Monte Alban begins. The Arabs were allowed to drag themselves to the top, more through their warrior spirit and desire for conquest than through their religious beliefs, qualities that knew how to develop their successors as well. Courses for this major address common questions about the transmission and transformation of cultures in the ancient Mediterranean world. 681 AD With this victory, the Latin tribes evacuated Campania until they were integrated into the Roman Republic. With comparison to some European nations, the Tayronans were very much ahead of them as well. Middle Kingdom: Period of great economic prosperity and outward expansion. The Mexican mythology, being very diverse but practically made under the mandate of Tlacelel, originated in Chicomoztoc (nahuatl: Chicome-oztotli-co, “Place of the seven caves”), a site related to Aztlan, from where the word Aztec is derived. They conquered Mesopotamia, Persia, Palestinian Egypt, Syria, and North Africa. Irititicame decided that they would establish themselves in the modern state of Michoacan, Mexico, and conquer the neighboring people of Naraxan. Hammurabi wrote an important collection of laws designed to guarantee equality of the judicial system of his time. Teotihuacan (nahuatl: Teotihuacan, “Place where the gods were made”) is the name given by the Mexicans to the remains of the ancient urban center that reached its peak during the Early Classic Period. 332 BC Resources to use for Ancient Civilization Timeline (click on website pictures to access links) 64The Egyptians are freed from the Persians with the conquests of Alexander the Great. In the 6th century, the sedentary tribes disappeared as independent entities before the supremacy and pressure of the Persians. In this period, Hinduism had acquired its main characteristics: the main gods, the religious practices, and the importance of temples. Invasion by the Hittites from Anatolia (modern-day Turkey). This primary source material will be studied in the context of a clear chronological timeline and frequent map work. The frontier between both was in modern-day Cairo, south of the Nile Delta. This time many Altepetlians already had been settled for centuries with a higher degree of civilization and assimilation of the Mesoamerican tradition, which will inspire the Mexican’s understanding. In this peninsula, the famous Battle of Troy took place, in which the Greeks, led by Agamemnon, won against the Trojans, led by Hector. Their power, aggressiveness and their combat tactics were a very effective for the triumph of Islam over the great sedentary empires of their neighbors. 1235 AD Tollan (Tula) disintegrates, giving rise to a dispersion of Toltecan-Chichimecan groups towards Cholula where they defeated the Olmecans. It remains present in popular culture and one can see its reiterations on film, art, architecture, and literature. It divided the year into 12 months and determined the agricultural and political activities for each month. 494 BC The final settlement included the Azcapotzalco acceptance of Altepetl as supreme, giving tribute to them periodically and remaining obedient in general. 772 AD Ancient Greece Timeline-The Greeks The expansion of Teotihuacan wasn’t achieved alone with weapons, but through a combination of military activity, trade, and the establishment of political alliances. 1000-700 BC Hannibal the Great rises to the throne. This was the first form of government in the city-state, Rome. Mesoamerica is an area defined by the culture. 509 BC Society was ordered according to the beliefs of Hinduism with a rigid Caste System. ... N.S. This is the period of the famous poems of Homer, the Iliad and the Odyssey. 5500 BC – 3100 BC 1202 AD – 1261 AD Qin Dynasty. Civilization & Science 614 BC But the first civilization in which we know a great deal about the role of slaves is that of ancient Greece. 206 BC-220 AD This region saw the development of an indigenous civilization in the frame of a mosaic of great ethnic and linguistic diversity. The Sui Dynasty brought the reunification of the south and the north, The Grand Canal was constructed and extended the Great Wall of China. Their economy transformed from agricultural to a higher-level of organization because of trade with foreign countries. The Roman Republic was a period of Roman history characterized by the Republican regime as a form of government. Constantine IV defeated the Arab fleet by using Greek Fire for the first time. Astyages, in alliance with the Babylonian Nabopolassar, conquered Nineveh and thus ended the Assyrian empire. Civilization Name: Incan civilizationPeriod: 1438 AD–1532 ADOriginal Location: Present-day PeruCurrent Location: Ecuador, Peru, and ChileMajor Highlights: Largest empire in South America in the pre-Columbian eraThe Incan Empire was the largest empire in South America in the pre-Columbian era. It is believed to be the world described by Homer in the Iliad and the Odyssey. 2000 BC – 1500 BC For unknown reasons, the gradual decline that ends in the 8th Century AD, even though the valley was never abandoned. In this era, the first writing systems were developed along with the base-20 numerical system of the Olmecs. 800 AD READ MORE: Battle of Yarmouk READ MORE: The Development of Constantinople READ MORE: The Second Punic War Through war an… 64 BC It should be noted that, until its fall, Greece developed an excellent fleet of which the Dromon is the ship that stood out the most. 67 BC Timeline of the Ancient World; 3500-3000 BC: 3000-2000 BC: 2000-1000 BC: 1000 BC-0: 0-500: Mesopotamian civilization ca. As well as Crete, other islands of the Aegean Sea (Cyclades and Rhodes) and places in Asia Minor show Mycenaean deposits. Trade was strongly developed and the concept of private property was created. It remains present in popular culture and one can see its reiterations on film, art, architecture, and literature. The sedentary tribes lived in Yemen, to the south-east, and in the principalities in the north that were related to Persia and Byzantium. Rome also saw the rise and fall of some of the greatest emperors in human civilization, like Julius Caesar, Trajan and Augustus. The Island suffered the invasion of the Achaeans. Hannibal manages to cross the Alps to fight the Romans. History >> Ancient Mesopotamia Ancient Mesopotamia is called the cradle of civilization. 504 BC When Teotihuacan declined, other centers that depended culturally and commercially on it came to a rapid end as well. They were famed in Classical Greece and Rome as ‘traders in purple’, referring to their monopoly on the precious purpl… Required fields are marked *. 1761 BC The first hunter-gatherer human groups arrived. 642 1550 BC – 1500 BC The Muisca human group (what they called themselves) immigrated towards the Cundiboyacens Plateau. 1792 BC 586 BC There is confusion about the timeframe that this ceremonial center was occupied; however, it is known to be the last to develop. The Mongol empire was the most extensive in history. They coincided with the Canaanite people of the bible. Classical Period: They created a style that was later considered exemplary. The tribal rivalry, the assimilation of conquered cultures, the ancient military model, the development of agriculture, the absence of an effective military, and the use of gunpowder were some of the most important factors in the decay of the Mongolian empire. 626 AD The emperors manage to stop the advance of the Arabs in the south and the Bulgarians in the north. 69 AD – 79 AD Crete came to be part of the Greek world. 539 BC In addition, he established an important network of alliances through his marriages. They were very advanced with a system of irrigation and a way to control the river with the intent to water the almost desert-like territory to the north. The last emperor of the west, Romulo Augustulo, who was only a boy. 498 BC – 493 BC 1400 BC These factors were what largely contributed to the success and the strength of the city. The secular differences between the Greek Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church lead to their definitive separation. Timeline Greece Maps Projects Civilizations Bronze Age India Objectives • Summarize how geography affected cultural development • Describe city-states • Describe early religious beliefs, social structure, and technology • Explain the influence of ancient civilizations on later civilizations

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