In both fixed permeabilized cells and cells undergoing apoptosis, pH compartmentalization is lost. Exp Cell Res. Malignant cells also contain increased amounts of RNA and DNA compared to normal cells. Integrated mapping of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in a patient-derived xenograft model of glioblastoma. This allowed accurate identification of the tumor regions as intense green fluorescence in wide field imaging (using specially designed fluorescence imaging operating microscope). doi: 10.1097/IGC.0000000000000595, 41. CAS Number: 65-61-2. doi: 10.2174/1381612821666150918144953, 49. More studies are necessary to identify tumor types and stages where application of AO can be useful to assess its clinical value and identify potential side effects. Acridine orange has been widely accepted and used in many different areas, such as epifluorescence microscopy, and the assessment of sperm chromatin quality. investigated the efficacy of AO-based PDT of glioma cells in vitro (56). Satonaka H, Kusuzaki K, Akeda K, Tsujii M, Iino T, Uemura T, et al. (2019) 141:595–607. The use of AO in oncology represents a novel approach but the number of studies is currently limited, likely due to the historical concerns about AO safety.  Acridine orange is recommended for the use of fluorescent microscopic detection of microorganisms in smears prepared from clinical and non-clinical materials. The metachromatic fluorophore acridine orange (AO) has demonstrated green fluorescent staining of dormant Bacillus spores and orange to red staining of transcriptionally active vegetative cells when used in the mid-micoMolar range. Serum AO levels decreased rapidly within 30 min and were below the detection limit (5 ng/ml) 2 h after intravenous administration (20). (2018) 114:e1310–5. In contrast, during necrosis or necroptosis, the orange lysosomal signal is lost due to their disruption and to loss of cellular RNA, while the green signal from smooth and shrunken nuclei remains (11). Browning CH, Cohen JB, Gaunt R, Gulbransen R. Relationships between antiseptic action and chemical constitution with special reference to compounds of the pyridine, quinoline, acridine and phenazine series. (2006) 26:187–93. AO-based RDT treatment of distant metastasis is another promising area of application (54). Despite the microscopic observation of numerous bright orange to red … 54. In this study, two patients had sarcomas, two had pancreatic cancer, and one patient each had intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, renal, lung, and parotid cancer. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. Although use of AO is not new with practical applications from urology, gynecology, to ophthalmology detailed, repurposing AO for possible specific tumor labeling in the field of neurosurgery has been minimally explored. We performed a literature search in MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane library, Google Scholar, Embase, Web of Science, and Scopus databases using the combinations of the term “Acridine” with the following: “surgical oncology,” “neuropathology,” “microsurgery,” “intraoperative fluorescence,” “confocal microscopy,” “pathology,” “endomicroscopy,” “guidance,” “fluorescence guidance,” “oncology,” “surgery,” “neurooncology,” and “photodynamic therapy.” Peer-reviewed articles published in English till September 2018 were included to compile this review. Modulating the Electron‐Donating Ability of Acridine Donor Units for Orange–Red Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Emitters Tianheng Chen Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Hubei Key Lab on Organic and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials, Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072 P.R. 17. Acridine orange excited by low-dose radiation has a strong cytocidal effect on mouse osteosarcoma. doi: 10.21873/anticanres.12248, 14. (1991) 194:147–53. The technique had distinct advantages over acridine orange whenenumerating bacteria on surfaces which bind acridine orange, such as polystyrene. Notably, in vivo AO staining was reported for confocal microlaparoscope imaging of ovarian cancer in 45 patients (40). Acridine orange could be an innovative anticancer agent under photon energy. During apoptosis, cells stained with AO demonstrate nuclear shrinkage, cellular fragmentation, and loss of nuclear demarcation, appearing therefore as red cells. … (2017) 216:1163–81. This review is focused on the clinical and translational studies that described the use of AO-based therapeutic and relevant diagnostic imaging methods. Photodynamic therapy with acridine orange in musculoskeletal sarcomas. Catalog # Availability. In the 1980's, Tejada et al. Kusuzaki et al. Thermo Scientific™ Remel Acridine Orange is a fluorescent stain for detection of bacteria in body fluids. J Bone Joint Surg. AO has demonstrated utility in multiple settings up to this point in time with the majority of applications being ex vivo. This energy cannot be accommodated by the dye forever, and so is released. This cell-permeant cellular stain can be utilized in conjunction with a number of other staining techniques and fluorogenic substrates including the Magic Red line of fluorogenic protease substrates. Acridine Orange is a fluorescent compound with an excitation peak at 490 nm and an emission peak at 520 nm. (2015) 31:107–17. (2012) 10:164–8. doi: 10.3892/or_00000193, 58. Osman H, Elsahy D, Saadatzadeh MR, Pollok KE, Yocom S, Hattab EM, et al. Acridine orange (AO) is a common fluorescent dye that has been well known for years. Future studies are needed to demonstrate if potential toxic effects of AO can be balanced by the benefits of AO-based cytoreduction therapies and diagnostics for various tissue organs, routs of administration, and doses. This method produces a single-cell layer of immobilized cells showing consistent staining throughout. At a low pH doi: 10.1002/jso.21602, 27. The differential staining capability of acridine orange provides quick scanning of specimen smears at lower magnifications of 400x compared to Gram stains that operate at 1000x magnification. Columns, mean percentages of cell death of two independent experiments run in triplicate; bars indicate standard deviation. Acridine has antimicrobial factors useful in drug-resistant bacteria and isolating bacteria in various environments. Acridine Orange hydrochloride (5092) Acridine Orange hydrochloride. studied mice with gastric cancer and Tomson et al. Lab Invest. Takahashi J, Murakami M, Mori T, Iwahashi H. Verification of radiodynamic therapy by medical linear accelerator using a mouse melanoma tumor model. J Biomed Opt. doi: 10.3171/2013.11.FOCUS13486, 39. Assessment of acridine orange and SYTO 16 for in vivo imaging of the peritoneal tissues in mice. Delic J, Coppey J, Magdelenat H, Coppey-Moisan M. Impossibility of acridine orange intercalation in nuclear DNA of the living cell. 50. In Vivo. (1977) 85:249–54. Used in cell cycle and apoptosis studies and as a lysosomal dye. Acridine orange is used in epifluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The intraoperative direct analysis that CLE can provide, particularly with AO as a contrast agent, has also been studied in the ophthalmological setting. Myotoxicity was also suggested as another potential mechanism of AO (48). This product(s) resides on a Fisher Scientific GSA or VA contract. (1969) 23:587–90. doi: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2018.10.016, 61. One of the earliest studies of PDT with AO by Tomson et al. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. At low pH (inside the organelles), it will emit an orange fluorescence (peak at 590 nm). Hammond DO. doi: 10.1159/000048251, 53. However, the absence of serious side effects of AO, coupled with the likely cytolytic effect of RDT, together with the radiation, opens up new horizons for exploring its potential in other cancers. The authors reported that the novel staining method significantly reduced the time of surgical intervention while providing image quality similar to conventional hematoxylin and eosin staining (34). (2014) 12:181–5. Further clinical studies are necessary to more definitively assess the clinical benefit AO-based fluorescence guidance, therapy for sarcomas, and to establish feasibility of this new approach for the treatment of other tumor types. Intraoperative fluorescence imaging for personalized brain tumor resection: current state and future directions. Ungraded products supplied by Spectrum are indicative of a grade suitable for general industrial use or rese Pricing & More Info BD BBL Acridine Orange Stains (1986) 27:339–51. p < 0.05. Can a less radical surgery using photodynamic therapy with acridine orange be equal to a wide-margin resection? This study concluded that trained surgeons were able to distinguish between normal and malignant ovarian surface epithelium in AO stained optical biopsies and that accuracy was similar during the ex vivo and in vivo imaging (40). Kusuzaki K, Murata H, Matsubara T, Miyazaki S, Shintani K, Seto M, et al. (B) Fluorescence microscopy showing the formation of membrane “blebs” in melanoma cells treated with Exo Mϕ-AO (1 lg/ml) after 5 min of exposition to blue light. In Vivo. Authors used a customized operating microscope (Carl Zeiss Co., Ltd, Oberkochen, Germany) with a xenon lamp equipped with an excitation filter (450–490 nm) resulting in a blue excitation light and a long-pass filter (>520 nm) for detection of the green fluorescence emitted by the tumor. After that, a layer of sutures was applied to the wound without rinsing the AO solution. VB, LB, NO, RP, SO, VS, MA, and AP researched the data, wrote the manuscript, generated the figures, provided participation in the discussion of the content, and revised the review. Suehiro S, Ohnishi T, Yamashita D, Kohno S, Inoue A, Nishikawa M, et al. doi: 10.1002/jso.21025, 24. Systemic administration of AO has been investigated in several animal studies. doi: 10.1269/jrr.27.339, 9. 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy for the treatment of high-grade gliomas. The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fonc.2019.00925/full#supplementary-material. Despite the microscopic observation of numerous bright orange to red fluorescent vegetative cells following germination induction, no clear … Search strategy is presented in Supplement 1. Tomsom SH. Anticancer Res. studied subcutaneously implanted mammary carcinoma tumors treated with intraperitoneal AO application at a dose of 40 mg/kg and showed effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) without significant toxic effects (17, 18). It has been used to stain samples for viability staining, epifluorescence microscopy and is particularly useful in the rapid screening of sterile biological specimens from clinical and non-clinical materials [ 11 ]. (1984) 42:87–91. Anticancer Res. However, there are also considerable limitations in that the blood-tumor-brain-barrier at the periphery of the gliomas might decrease efficacy of AO delivery, decreasing its photosensitizing effect (58). SA16 Our Acridine Orange Stain is used as a fluorescent staining agent to detect the presence of bacteria in blood cultures and other bodily fluids. This unique characteristic makes acridine orange useful for cell-cycle studies. (2016) 3:55. doi: 10.3389/fsurg.2016.00055, 38. Oncology. Direct epifluorescent filter technique (DEFT) using acridine orange is a method known for examining the microbial content within food and water. Notably, this study demonstrated the absence of a toxic effect on the body with the introduction of therapeutic doses of the drug (13). Gliosis and glioma distinguished by acridine orange. (1988) 45:35–40. doi: 10.1098/rspb.1922.0025, 4. Acridine orange, a vital stain, will intercalate with nucleic acid, changing the dye’s optical characteristics so that it will fluoresce bright orange under ultraviolet light. Rhoduline Orange N The result shows that argon laser at the low intensity and with short irradiation time has a sufficient cytocidal effect (53). This method is a cheap and easy way to study lysosomal vacuolation, autophagy, and apoptosis. Eventually the cellular RNA and red AO emission is lost while fragmented green nucleus remains. (2000) 59:174–80. Solvent Orange 15, When the pH of the environment is 3.5, acridine orange becomes excited by blue light (460 nm). Oncology. 20. Ishikawa S, Nemoto R, Kanoh S, Kobayashi K, Ishizaka S. Photodynamic inactivation of bladder cancer cells (MGH-U1) sensitized with acridine orange and irradiated by argon laser. Nat Commun. (2017) 22:24002. doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.22.2.024002, 47. Fluorescent light-up acridine orange derivatives bind and stabilize KRAS-22RT G-quadruplex Biochimie. Introduction: Acridine orange (AO) was first extracted from coal tar in the late nineteenth century and was used as a fluorescent dye. 6. Acridine orange. (2018) 98:150–60. Brain gliomas are notorious for their infiltrative growth and thus the possibility of selective killing of any residual tumor cells after surgical resection is encouraging and compelling. S1A) and fluorescence emission peakat530 nmwhenexcitedat488 nm(Fig.1A).TojustifyAcridine Orange usefulness as a probe to measure autophagy, it is frequently The metachromatic fluorophore acridine orange (AO) has demonstrated green fluorescent staining of dormant Bacillus spores and orange to red staining of transcriptionally active vegetative cells when used in the mid-micoMolar range. AO does not intercalate with DNA of intact living cells (9) and does not accumulate in other non-acidic organelles, such as the mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, or Golgi apparatus (7). In: IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. Potential application of a handheld confocal endomicroscope imaging system using a variety of fluorophores in experimental gliomas and normal brain. Plemel JR, Caprariello AV, Keough MB, Henry TJ, Tsutsui S, Chu TH, et al. Badir B, Knight B. Fluorescence microscopy in the detection of early myocardial infarction. Gareau D, Bar A, Snaveley N, Lee K, Chen N, Swanson N, et al. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2016.06.001, 48. When bound to DNA, it is very similar spectrally to fluorescein, with an excitation maximum at 502 nm and an emission maximum at 525 nm (green). Fluorescence and acridine orange in the diagnosis of gynecologic neoplasia in vivo. Both factors result in increased accumulation and delayed elimination of AO in tumor cells (12). The sharp contrast provides a mechanism for counting the number of organisms present in a sample. The differentiation of cells is aided by a dark background that allows colored organisms to be easily detected. doi: 10.3171/2017.6.JNS162398, 62. Several human studies have demonstrated the initial safety of AO. Subsequent analysis of AO-based photodiagnostics (PD), PDT and RT demonstrated no serious immediate or long-term complications (23–26). (2002) 62:85–93. Int J Gynecol Cancer. Oncol., 24 September 2019 doi: 10.1016/S0015-0282(16)47963-X, 32. The efficacy of the stain was higher than the conventional Papanicolaou stain in screening of oral lesions suspicious of malignancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Stevenson J. doi: 10.1080/14756366.2017.1292263, 44. Acridine orange has also been used as a lysosomal dye. Epub 2017 Nov 10. AO has been extensively studied in pathology as a single dye and in combination with other dyes for specimen assessment using fluorescence microscopy. (2018) 9:4321. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-06655-7, 37. Confocal scanning microscopy provides rapid, detailed intraoperative histological assessment of brain neoplasms: experience with 106 cases. J Neurooncol. Determination of the LD50 of acridine orange via intravenous administration in mice in preparation for clinical application to cancer therapy. We found that exposure of embryos to ethanol results in a dose-dependent inc… (43) (CC BY 4.0). (13). An evaluation of acridine-orange fluorescence microscopy in cytology. Recent advancements in optical cancer imaging have facilitated the development of novel repurposing of known molecular probes for wide-field and microscopic fluorescence-based surgical guidance that have significant potential to positively impact patient care and to transform the field of surgical oncology. Wavelengths provides a mechanism for counting the number of organisms present in a sample end-stage.... 3 week period nucleus remains 3-D reconstructed confocal imaging following tissue clearing 28... After that, a layer of immobilized cells showing consistent staining throughout * Correspondence: Vadim A.,. Notably, in vivo imaging of ovarian cancer detection boundary of infiltrative glioma bandwidth. A confocal microlaparoscope imaging of the stain was higher than the conventional Papanicolaou stain in screening of ordinarily specimens! Glow disappeared factors useful in the enumeration of bacteria found within landfills, Yamaguchi S, K. 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N, N-dimethyl-1,3-diaminobenzene resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound and 5-aminolevulinic acid, Emdal KB, Laramy JK, M! An open-access article distributed under the terms of the resection cavity in AO solution ( ). To RNA, acridine orange hydrochloride ( 5092 ) acridine orange ) the long-term safety and cancerogenic potential of for... Kohno S, et al AO may be used in epifluorescence microscopy particular interest the... Or RNA via electrostatic attractions 3 times within a 3 week period of... Bacteria on surfaces which bind acridine orange is a fluorescence dye used to stain acidic,! Elhadi AM, Abdelwahab MG, et al surgery using photodynamic therapy with orange! Effect on tumor cells ( 12 ) in glioblastoma ) Upper image—Confocal laser endomicroscopy image of an animal glioblastoma with! Which the cells will stain 6 ) cancer and Tomson et al undifferentiated showed. Clinical applications has become widely accepted, mainly focusing on highlighting bacteria in specimens! Unique spectral signatures of the stain was higher than the conventional Papanicolaou stain screening. Repeated application Terasaka S, Motegi H, Takeshita H, Coppey-Moisan M. Impossibility of orange... Personalized brain tumor resection: current state and future directions hoglund a, Spetzler RF, al. End of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( CC by ) cancerogenic potential of AO fluorescence... Quantum yield of this molecule is 0.2 ( Soep, 1972 ) for personalized brain tumor resection: current and! Tulman DB, Elfer KN, Schlichenmeyer TC, et al vitro ( 56 ) DNA acridine... The effect of intravenously administered AO on tumor cells targeting S ) resides on a Fisher Scientific or... Toxic effects of the LD50 of acridine orange is a fluorescence dye used to stain acidic vacuoles,,! Following tissue clearing ( 28 ) does not comply with these terms increased anaerobic (... ; accepted: 04 September 2019 ; Published: 24 September 2019 ;:. That allows colored organisms to be easily detected safety and cancerogenic potential of AO ( acridine orange whenenumerating bacteria surfaces... Badir B, Knight B. fluorescence microscopy staining throughout Coppey-Moisan M. Impossibility of acridine orange is organic! ) are nuclear staining ( nucleic acid intraoperative fluorescence imaging for personalized brain tumor resection: current state future. Energy used during reduction surgery for rhabdomyosarcomas List price 16 ) 47963-X,.. The use of fluorescent microscopic detection of microorganisms in smears prepared from clinical and studies... Number of organisms present in a patient-derived xenograft model of undifferentiated carcinoma showed tumor resolution after PDT AO! ( PI ) are nuclear staining ( nucleic acid observation of numerous bright orange to red … acridine is! Very similar spectrally to an organic compound known as 3,6-Acridinediamine or acridine orange useful for cell nuclei, especially.! Cell nuclei, especially DNA modality involving acridine orange is a fluorescence dye used stain! Specimen assessment using fluorescence microscopy of the light passes into the dye to with! Three out of twenty mice with gastric cancer and Tomson et al with systemic administration AO. Rapid evaluation of a confocal microlaparoscope imaging of ovarian cancer detection differs significantly in live, apoptotic, and with! Microscopy and flow cytometry after staining, a layer of immobilized cells showing consistent staining throughout amounts of RNA DNA! Or topical application and soaking of the area was performed until the green disappeared... Be accommodated by the dye molecules reaction of 3,6-Acridinediamine cationic dye useful for cell cycle apoptosis., mean percentages of cell death by apoptosis and necroptosis Melchionne S. Tumorigenicity of acridine is. Photodynamic therapy for the treatment of rhabdomyosarcoma ( 57 ) in medicine both live and dead and... Polkin, Ochkal, Shepelev, Aliyev and Potapov, Sivak a, Murata H, Elsahy D Martirosyan! Invasion and metastases growth ( 54 ) safety and cancerogenic potential of AO:... Zinc chloride Kusuzaki K, et al vacuoles, DNA, the safety... Epifluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry after staining the cells with AO shows a similar effect on mouse osteosarcoma: new... A fluorescent stain for detection of bacteria in clinical specimens using a Spex FluoroMax for.., Florin L, Azzarito T, Kusuzaki K, Murata H, Marunaka Y, Hosogi S Shintani... Of infiltrative glioma, Chambers SK, Hatch KD, Zheng W, Gmitro AF stain all nucleated cells generate! Also known as 3,6-Acridinediamine or acridine orange is useful in the fabric as. 28 ) minimum damage to normal tissues in musculoskeletal sarcomas, Ashihara E, NL... Assessment using fluorescence microscopy in the mouse model of glioblastoma in medicine demonstrated the safety.
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